From plant sources, the enzyme is present in tannin rich vegetables mainly in their fruits, leaves, branches and barks of trees like konnam, mirobolano and badul . Many fungal species have been proved for its ability to produce tannase that have higher enzyme activity compared to bacterial and yeast tannase. The most important source to obtain the enzyme is by microbial way, because the produced enzymes are more stable than similar ones obtained from other sources . In this study, the kinetics of tannase production using A.flavus with redgram husk was studied and various unstructured kinetic models were used to characterize the fermentation
To overcome such situations, bacterial cells enter biofilm mode and sustain (Bazire et al.2007). It has been observed that under biofilm mode of growth Pseudomonas mendocina EGD AQ5 could effectively overcome the stress and degrade 40 mM benzoate which has been regarded as highest concentration (Ampe and
Table (5): Effect of plant essential oils and microorganisms on head yield and quality of Cauliflower plants in both seasons Generally, it is clear from Tables 4 and 5 that, total head yield of cabbage and cauliflower was significantly increased by all treatments compared to control in both seasons. The highest yield harvested from seedlings dipped before planted in eucalyptus oil followed by Trichoderma harsianum treatment, while the lowest yield came from untreated plants. Moreover, cabbage and cauliflower have a large and heavier head when dipped on eucalyptus oil and Trichoderma harsianum respectively. These results may be due to the superior effect of both eucalyptus oil and Trichoderma harsianum, which has resulted in increased cabbage and cauliflower vegetative growth characteristics
The manganese content increased as the Rutuba rates increased. There was no significant difference in the Mn content among all the NPK rates and the no-fertilizer control. The three sole Rutuba application rates and 625 kg Rutuba/ha + 625 kg NPK/ha had significantly higher content of Cu than all the sole NPK rates and the no-fertilizer control. The no-fertilizer control had significantly higher Cu content than all the sole NPK application regimes. Application of 1875 kg Rutuba/ha had significantly the highest content of Fe compared to all the other treatments while 937.5 kg Rutuba/ha and 625 kg
resistance may provide an additional method for controlling faba bean diseases to be considered in an integrated diseases management. Geetha and Shetty (2002) reported the induction of resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew disease up on treating seeds of the highly susceptible cultivars of pearl millet with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (BTH) (CGA 245704), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). 0.75 per cent BTH, 90 mM CaCl2 and 1.0mM H2O2 were efficient in managing the disease by giving 78 per cent, 66 per cent and 59 per cent protection respectively, against downy mildew disease. In vivo quantification of Sclerospora graminicola by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed reduced fungal biomass in plants induced for resistance. 2.11.
A clump of 2-3 shoots were subcultured to the different culture vessels containing optimized shoot multiplication medium [MMS medium + BAP (0.25 mg l-1) + Kn (0.25 mg l-1) + 2iP (0.25 mg l-1) + additives + AC (100 mg l-1)]. Observations, based on morphology, number and length of in vitro raised shoots, were recorded after 15–17
WBC was found to proportional with increasing Power and time. WBC was found highest 2.400g/g for 50W 10 minute samples than untreated sample 2.04g/g. This might be due to surface etching .Similar trend was seen with WHC Sample 50Watts 10minutes sample was found to more WBC. These WBC and WHC are responsible for the extruded product .Oil absorption capacity (OAC) of flour samples significantly increased from untreated control to treated samples OAC was found 1.39g/g highest for 50W 15minutes and least 0.86g/g for 30W 5minutes in rice flour relies predominantly on the physical entrapment of oil within the starch structure by flour proteins capillary action. Interestingly, significant different(p>0.05) was not seen on
The results showed that antioxidant application increased significantly all growth indicators in both cultivars, and the maximum values were recorded in the combined application of acetyl salicylic acid as injection in soil besides spraying of ascorbic acid of kabkab cultivar. Also, antioxidant applications significantly improved RWC as well as carbohydrates content, soluble protein and proline in leaves compared with control treatments in both cultivars. All antioxidant treatments succeeded in decreasing leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations and increasing leaf K+ concentration and K+/Na+ ratio. The results clear that female cultivar more tolerant to salt stress than male cultivar in offshoot stage. Key words: Antioxidant, Acetyl salicylic acid, Salinity, Proline, Protein, RWC and
For unfried tofu, formulation 1 tofu had highest ash content, followed by formulation 2, 4 and lastly formulation 3. For fried tofu, formulation 1 tofu had highest ash content, followed by formulation 2, 3 and lastly formulation 4. Results show that addition of siako to tofu (formulation 1) increases the ash content more than addition of GDL (formulation 3 and 4). This might be due to siako contains more micronutrients than GDL (Shokunbi et al., 2011). Siako is a salt which contains mineral ions such as calcium thus increase the ash content (Sidar et al., 2012).
Chapter one Chapter 2 Literature review Importance of Nitrogenous fertilizers N fertilizer applications remain essential and are contributing about 30–50 % crop yield increase (Erisman et ,.al. 2008) .According to Smil, (2001) the increased use of N fertilizer has been a major contributor to global food production for the past 50 years .Nitrogen is one of the most important macronutrients needed by crops during their growth cycles.It is an essential component of enzymes, proteins and pigments such as chlorophyll. (Xiaoyuan et ,.al 2003). Nitrogen is known to stimulate crop development, roots and also aids in the uptake of other nutrients. Compared to other major macro elements such as phosphorus and potassium there are no known rock