have considerable potential in the biocontrol of plant parasitic nematodes. The genus Bacillus consists of a heterogenic group of gram positive rods, are widely distributed in nature, easy to multiply and are nonpathogenic. Bacillus species are outstanding biocontrol agents that are used to manage root-knot nematodes as they show effective root colonization, multiple modes of action and promising ability to sporulate. They live as endophytes within the plant and benefit the host plant by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them. An important characteristic of this bacterium genus is its ability to produce endospores when environmental conditions are stressful that allow them to survive for extended periods under adverse environmental conditions.
Some bacteria are harmless, some can even be helpful for us for instance the bacteria that exist in our digestive system but there are also bacteria that are harmful to us. To be able to deal with that vast amount of microorganisms and especially the ones that may cause harm to us, a vast variety of antibiotics is needed. Antibiotics is a type of antimicrobial for preventing and treating bacterial infection. The way antibiotics work is by either kill or inhibit the growth or reproduction of the bacteria 9, despite the name, a number antibiotics are also known to be effective against protozoans and fungi. Antibiotics are commonly divided up into different classes, sorted according to their functions, chemical structure and spectrum of activity.
Thus meaning that they are oxidase negative. Enterobacteriaceae are catalase-positive, while both traits with the family have their exceptions, they are often used for the microorganisms identification for example using API strips. While the Enterobacteriaceae ferment a verity of carbohydrates, it is their production of acid and gas by-products from the fermentation of D-Glucose that is one of the most important diagnostic features for their detection and enumeration. Some Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter spp.
ABSTRACT Metabolites are molecular substances formed during various metabolic reactions, can be categorized as primary or secondary depending on their consequent functions. Primary metabolites have specific functions and are essential to the plants growth and survival. In turn secondary metabolites although important but are not essential for the plants’ growth but have a very huge role in upbringing of the plant. Consequently plants produce secondary metabolites with outstanding functions in defense against predators and microbial pathogens depending on their toxic nature and repellence to herbivores and microbes. They are involved in defense against varieties of various stresses.
An example is blood culture medium (BHI, TSB or Thioglycolate) media that allows growth and multiplication of bacteria which is indicated by turbidity. Types of culture media There are different types of culture media based on their composition and used for different purposes. The main types of media are: o Basic o Enriched o Differential o Selective Basic medium – This is a simple media e.g. Nutrient broth or Nutrient agar that can support the growth of bacteria that do not have any special nutritional requirements. Such bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus and most of the Enterobacteriaceae.
(Cuthberson,1990) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING CASSIA ALATA AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL Antibiotics are one of our most important weapons in fighting bacterial infections and have greatly benefited the health-related quality of human life since their introductio. It is essential to investigate newer drugs with lesser resistance. Drugs derived from natural sources play a significant role in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.It has been tested that cassia alata are good supplement for other antibacterial candidates,it may lead to less expense than other products. Cassia alata is commonly used as an antibacterial and anti-fungal treatment for various skin diseases that includes;tinea infections,ringworms ,aczema,scabies, insect bites,and all sorts of skin itchiness.Cassia alata leaves are safe for most adults, however the seeds should not be taken for long term.It may
But what do the antibiotics exactly do? And how they can cure diseases? As a matter of fact, Antibiotics are powerful medicines that can cure bacterial infections if they are used properly. They fight against bacteria by destroying or inhibiting bacteria growth. Soil bacteria and fungi are the natural components of Antibiotics ((n.d.).
ıt is easy to prepare. It provides the environmental and nutritional conditions similar to their natural habitat. It is useful when a specimen contains a mixed bacterial colonies to achieve distinct colony-forming units. It also has disadvantages like it does not support the simultaneous growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Consequently, duplicate plates must be inoculated, and incubated in both atmospheres.
These biofilms facilitates the adherence of the bacteria onto their surfaces, which can even be a biomedical appliance, and protect them from the immune system of the host. Organisms on biofilms behave differently than the normal clinical isolates in respect to their growth rate and resistant to the antimicrobial drugs, thereby being a major public health problem (Costerton et al, 1999). They are most commonly found on the indwelling devices or implants. The common organisms isolated are, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis.
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori has become an issue of concern due to its eradication failures. This paper is a literature review of the ultra structure and morphology of the bacteria and how it develops resistance to antibiotics such as clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin. It also reviews the action of these antibiotics and their prevalence rate of resistance to Helicobacter pylori. INTRODUCTION Helicobacter pylori known previously as Campylobacter pylori, is a Gram-negative bacteria mostly found in the stomach of humans. The bacterium is usually asymptomatic and is part of the normal flora of the stomach.