The World Wide Problems of Addiction: Genetics vs. Environmental Factors or Both Chasen L. Edge Georgia Military College PSYC 200 – Introduction to Psychology The World Wide Problems of Addiction: Genetics vs. Environmental Factors or Both Why do we need to know the exact cause of addictions? Are they genetically related? Are they environmentally related or a combination of both? The answers to the questions would certainly contribute in seeking help and controlling the addiction. If the answer was entirely environmental, we could mainly seek rehabilitation programs. These programs usually take place in a controlled facility. At the end of the program, the addict has learned to control his/her own actions and surroundings to prevent …show more content…
Even the strongest estimate of the role of genetics in the formation of our personalities leaves a major role to be played by our child rearing, the stresses and strains of our lives, our social relationships, and other psychological factors (Lahey, 2012). Our social environments affect us throughout our lives. In a review of the literature, the most consistent factors associated with an increased risk for smoking during adolescence was peer and family influences, psychosocial stressors, depression, and externalizing behavior (Seglem, Waaktaar, & Torgersen, …show more content…
J. (2004). Genetics influences in human psychological traits: a survey. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 148-151. Daley, D. C. (2013). Family and social aspects of substance use disorders and treatment. Journal Of Food & Drug Analysis, 21s73. Genes and Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016. Gowing, L. R., Ali, R. L., Allsop, S., Marsden, J., Turf, E. E., West, R., and Witton, J. (2015), Global statistics on addictive behaviours: 2014 status report. Addiction, 110, 904–919. Lahey, B. B. (2012). Psychology: An introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, Z.S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshelman, S., Wittchen, H.U., & Kendler, K.S. (1993). Lifetime and 12 month prevlance of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8-19. Risk Factors for Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2016. Seglem, K., Waaktaar, T., Ask, H., & Torgersen, S. (2015). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescents ' Smoking Involvement: A Multi-informant Twin Study. Behavior Genetics, 45(2), 171-180. Zickler, P. (1999). Twin Studies Help Define the Role of Genes in Vulnerability to Drug Abuse. Nida Notes, 14(4),
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Connecting the brain and addiction has helped find effective treatments for these patients. However, studies are still being done on addicts and the brain’s response to addiction. According to Filbey, “Future work can expand on this knowledge by determining individual differences, such as genetic and environmental factors, that influence the addiction connectome” (Filbey, 2013, p.
It has incited ongoing debates. Among those who consider addiction a choice is Gene Heyman, author of Addiction: A Disorder of Choice. Heyman does not deny that there is a genetic component to addiction, but downplays the importance of genetics and behavior (Kurti and Dallery 4), “Heyman notes that one common error made by both laypeople and scientists is to assume that genetic involvement in a behavior implies that the behavior is involuntary” (4). Heyman defends addiction as a choice by noting the history of drug abuse, societal responses to the abuse, personal case histories of abuse, the epidemiology of addiction, “rational” and “irrational” choices, brain-behavior relationships, and approaches to treatment of drug addiction. Heyman also argues that rational choices can lead to long-term outcomes, such as addiction, and the understanding of these processes can help prevent and treat drug
(Comer 302) Substance abuse disorder begins with the individual making the choice to use the drug, from there there are changes in the brain that turn this use into an addiction. People who have addiction in their genes may get addicted faster. It has been argued that there are two steps that happen to begin the addiction. First, there must be the “activation of the pleasure pathway”. This is a path that travels through parts of the brain that deal with rewards, motivation, emotion, and making
Introduction Substance use and abuse has far reaching implications for all of society, and has significant effects on the global burden of disease. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) has indicated that substance use disorders (SUD) may have a formidable effect on the health of individuals, families, and communities (SAMSHA, 2016). Whiteford, Ferrari, Degenhardt, Feigin, and Vos (2015) stated, “Mental, neurological, and substance use disorders are a leading cause of the disease burden worldwide, substantially contributing to health loss across the lifespan” (p. 8). Reasons for the prevalence of substance abuse are multi-factorial. Those who use, or abuse, frequently suffer from a multitude of other problems, such as physical diseases, mental disorders, and dysfunctional familial, social, and financial
And I believe that cause of addiction is from both psychology and environment.in other words I believe it cause by environment and maybe temptation. Why I pick temptation because I believe that temptation is cause of addiction. When someone is tempts to something that cant stop and they wants it so bad that it's kill them. In my point view I know what addiction to something that you cant stop. I also believe that the rat in "Rat Park" have what addiction as human so, no member the size of the rat they still have the same addiction as us.
Drug addiction is a form of a chronic disease, relapsing of the brain causes compulsive behaviors to seek drug use. Despite the harmful consequences that are a result of a drug addiction, millions of people still abuse drugs. The addiction is a disease of the brain because of the abuse of drugs, which causes a change in the structures, and functions of the brain. Drugs are chemicals that tap into the brain's communication system and change the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information. Even though it is true that most people initially make the decision to take drugs is a voluntary action and is not forced upon you.
Formulate a five to seven page double-spaced paper addressing factors that may make an individual prone to addictive experiences, be it biological, psychological, or environmental. Incorporate your own thoughts related to the coursework that you have studied and conduct outside research to support your thoughts. There are different factors that might cause an individual to be prone to addictive experiences. The factors can include the person’s environment. Addictive experience can also be based on their mental stability.
All these characteristics led to the conclusion that drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use. It is considered as a brain disease because drugs change the structure of the brain, and how it works. Every drug affects different systems of the brain. For example, in the case of cocaine, as the brain is adapted in the presence of the specific drug, brain regions responsible for judgment, decision-making, learning, and memory begin to physically change, making certain behaviors “hard-wired.” In some brain regions, connections between neurons are pruned back.
However, addiction to a drug is influenced broadly by 3 main factors – the drug, the person and the environment. Drug factors include the drug’s addictiveness, how long you’ve been using it and how much you normally use. Person factors include the role of genetic differences and the individual’s capacity to cope with stresses. And environmental factors include availability of work and social integration Millions of people around the world use drugs and/or alcohol
Literature Review Substance Use Disorder Defined According to the American Psychological Association, the definitional boundaries of what addiction is has changed multiple times over the years. Addiction was relabeled dependence in 1964 by the World Health Organization, as it thought that the word addiction closely linked to opiate use. A few years ago, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was released and combined the diagnostic categories for substance abuse and substance dependence (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These diagnoses have replaced the term with substance use disorders.
Abuse of and addiction to alcohol, nicotine, and illegal and prescription drugs cost more than $700 billion a year in increased health care costs, crime, and lost productivity. 1,2,3 Every year, illegal and prescription drugs and alcohol contribute to the death of more than 90,000 westerners, while nicotine is related to an estimated 480,000 deaths per year. People of all ages know the dreadful consequences of drug abuse and addiction. 1)Babies: exposed to drugs in the womb may be born premature and underweight. This exposure can reduce the child’s mental development and influence his behavior later in life.
Kensworth. Drug use and addiction cause a lot of diseases and disabilities in the world. Recent advances in neuroscience may help improve policies to reduce the harm that the use of drugs and other psychoactive drugs impose on society. Drugs can be harmful and beneficial in both ways as it can cure many diseases but can also create a world of hallucinations where human beings can dive into a world of fantasy and cause addictions that can cause a great risk on the long run, therefore, human beings must be cautious and avoid drug
Nicotine use causes the release of dopamine, leading to feelings of reward and pleasure. However, the effects of nicotine are short lasting, and often followed by withdrawal symptoms such as cravings and irritability. Over time and with continued use, the number of nicotine receptors in the brain can increase, compounding nicotine cravings. Frequently pairing smoking with another activity can also lead to neurochemical changes that affect how parts of the brain connect with each other, which creates the unconscious associations between certain activities and cravings. Further, a person’s genes play an important role in addiction, with certain genetic variants appearing to influence how heavily a person will smoke, how addicted to nicotine he or she becomes, and the likelihood of relapse after