In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
GTA Presentation: Assessment What is assessment? Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. (Huba and Freed, 2000) Assessment is the systematic basis for making inferences about the learning and development of students. It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and using information to increase students’ learning and development. (Erwin, 1991) Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and
Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Brown (2004) defines formative assessment as “evaluating students in the process of “forming” their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them to continue that growth process”. Cowie and Bell, (1999) adopt a narrower definition of formative assessment by using the definition “the process used by teachers and students to recognize and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning, during the learning”. This definition requires formative assessment to take place during learning. That is, focusing the unplanned an
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING The Social Learning Theory, also known as observational learning, involves how a learner changes behaviour and obtains knowledge as a result of watching others within their environment. Albert Bandura (1977) considered observational learning as the process that explains the nature of children learning behaviours by watching the behaviour of the people in their environment, and ultimately, imitating them. Observational learning will be applied to demonstrate how in the phonics activity, students act as observers, and the teacher as the model, where imitation of actions create a learning process resulting in the students being able to independently trace the ‘h’ letter shape, ultimately learning through observation.
When defined within an educational setting, assessment, evaluation, and testing are all used to measure how much of the assigned materials students are mastering, how well students are learning the materials, and how well students are meeting the stated goals and objectives. Education professionals make distinctions between assessment, evaluation, and testing. According to Bachman (1990), the terms ‘measurement’, ‘test’, and ‘evaluation’ are often used synonymously and interchangeably. He also emphasizes that Measurement in the social sciences is the process of quantifying the characteristics of persons according to explicit procedures and rules. Meanwhile, Brown (2004) states that test is “a method of measuring a person's ability, knowledge,
A key characteristic is that the assessment information used by both teacher and pupils to modify their work in order to make it more effective”. In a similar vein, Tunstall and Gipps (1996) wrote “formative assessment means teachers using their judgments of children knowledge or understanding to feedback into the teaching process and to determine for individual children whether to re-explain the task/concept, to give further practice on it or move on the next stage”. (cited in Harry Torrance and John Pryor, 1998). In addition, Black & Wiliam (1998) adopted a more restrictive definition by limiting the term to assessment conducted while learning was taking place. They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching.
There is the analogous relation between the two major approaches to learning and reflective thinking practice (Leung & Kember, 2003; Phan, 2007).This intertwined relationship is, again, pivotal to the cultivation and encouragement of quality learning in higher education contexts. Pedagogical strategies and learning objectives that entail complexities in this sense stimulate intellectual curiosity and positive perceptions of task value, facilitating in this process engagement of meaningful learning and deep learning strategies (Kember et al., 2000). In this study, students’ learning is key aspects of investigation in understanding quality in students’ learning. Especially from a phenomenographic perspective, how students approach learning is a key issue in examining qualitative
This chapter presents the relevant theories, related literature and studies containing concepts, ideas and background information that are connected to the studys theme which were reviewed to attain a clearer perspective and to arrive at an adequate background of the study. Relevant Theory The study will directly anchor into Vygotsky 's socio-constructivist theory (1978) the theory emphasis is in the mental functions that are acquired through social relationship; learning takes when child interacts with peers and adults in a social setting as they act upon the environment; children learn by internalizing activities conducted on the word around them. It suggests that children emulate behaviors and incorporate them into their existing structures of knowledge when they are exposed to new situations in which they can actually interact with others. Vygotskys theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes: 1.
They learn through assimilation and accommodation in complex cognitive development. Furthermore, interaction with physical and social environments is the key and development occurs in stages. An example of Jean Piaget theory carried out in the classroom is that giving children a great deal of hands-on practice, by using concrete props and visual aids. Taking into consideration and being sensitive to the possibility that students may have different meanings for the same word, or different words for the same meaning where students may expect everyone to understand the words they have
Knowledge about cognition emphasizes the appraisal of one’s cognitive process and one’s own awareness; while regulation of cognition takes into account self-regulation and strategies leading to the achievement of self-regulation (Baker & Brown, 1984). Metacognition is significant in reading comprehension, communication, language, self-instruction, acquisition, attention, social cognition, self-control, memory, writing, problem solving, and personality development (Flavell, 1979). Metacognition enables people to learn and acquire the knowledge strategically and deal with new information predominantly (Everson & Tobias, 1998). While different approaches to learning literature have been criticized for failing to pay enough attention to the agency of the learner (Boshier & Huang, 2008; Haggis, 2003), metacognition has been valued as central to self-regulation and accounts of agency in learning (Kluwe 1982, cited in Dunlosky, Graesser, & Hacker,