Anthropology studies primitive societies through ethnography in order to determine how humans develop through societal functioning and the culture they are brought up in. Freud gave several insights on psycho cultural analysis, one was that individuals daily lives are influenced by the drives of the unconscious. Psychoanalysis is unique in its ”preoccupation... with the purposes and symbolic content of thought”(LaBarre, 1968a,p.85). Freud’s psychoanalytic approach in Anthropology has been highly criticised due to many questions about personality and culture. One question was whether psychoanalytic theories of the unconscious highlight characteristics, beliefs and behaviours in non-Western populations. Anthropologists have argued that Freud’s theory is culture bound. Freud’s theory centralised on the structure of the psyche, which is included within the inner models of reality of the individual in biological and social aspects. The unconscious is a psychic …show more content…
transmitted from generation to generation by percept, teaching, and example, [are] not — at least all practical purposes — psychogenic in origin” (Turner 1978:573). In his study of the Ndembu tribe of Zambia, Turner (1967:19) defined ritual as "prescribed formal behaviour for occasions not given over to technological routine, having reference to beliefs in mystical beings and powers." In Ndembu rituals are seen as authoritative and essential values for their tribe. Symbols are seen as a reference to the supernatural their religious beliefs. Anthropologists researched ways of linking cultural symbolism to unconscious fantasy, they argued that even though culture is the product of individual unconscious fantasy, it is also the manner through which people organise their own thoughts and internal worlds. “ ... culture, in providing myths or beliefs for the ‘cold ‘storage’ of certain fantasies and insights, keeps them out of ‘private
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Originally from Austria, Sigmund Freud was a trained neurologist who was particularly interested in the human psyche. Over many years, Freud developed a theory to explain human behavior, what we refer to now as “Freudian Psychology.” First, he divided the mind into three levels, and used the analogy of an iceberg to help others understand it. On the surface, Freud identified the Conscious. It is here that most of our decision making and ideas are processed.
When walking in to the Dotted Dialogues exhibit, I went in with an ignorant mind and misunderstanding of what the paintings truly meant and stood for. While attending the exhibit I learned that the tribespeople saw the world from a different perspective than anyone else. Rather than seeing it from straight on and as a landscape, they saw it from a bird’s eye view; seeing mountains as ovals, and trails as branched, connected lines. These paintings were made from hundreds to thousands of dots painted on to a solid color backboard and creatively formed into an image. “All this artwork is grounded in ancestral religious stories,” said Françoise Dussart, the well-known and prestigious professor of anthropology, also the curator of the exhibit.
The psychological man is based off Sigmund Freud’s importance of the unconscious mind, and made a primary assumption of Freudian theory is the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. “What is needed to free men from their sick communities. To emancipate the man’s ‘I’ from ‘we’ is spiritual guidance” [Reiffe 1960: 330]. This shift begins from within the individual.
Anth 101 Journal 1: Ethnographer for a day First question, what is culture meaning to us? To me, cultural has many different meaning, it can be agriculture, lifestyle, arts, education, economic, and so on. In the middle of the 19th century, some of new humanities such as anthropology, sociology and ethnology are rise in the western country, so the concept of culture was changed and has a modern significance. The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist Edward B. Tylor in his book, “Primitive Culture”, published in 1871. Tylor said that culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."
The face is an important element in all cultures. It harbors all of the five senses: seeing, speaking, smelling, hearing, tasting. As a master of the senses the face plays a large role in art especially in that of the Dan ethos. In African Dan culture the face is a central theme in the tradition of masquerade. The approximate 35, 000 Dan peoples of Northern Liberia and Northern Cote D’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) employ artistic form and evoke spiritual association through masquerade ritual.
Sigmund Freud is Psychology’s most famous psychoanalysis. His work and theories have helped shape our views of personality, levels of consciousness and unconsciousness mind, the structure of personality and the development of personality. There are three aspects to Freud’s theory of personality structure and fives stages through the psychosexual development. The psyche
Traditional Western approaches suggest that psychology can be applied to everyone all around the world, without taking the above mentioned into account. Key aspects of the African perspective that differs from the Traditional Western approach includes the following: • An indigenisation of psychology that is based on worldviews, languages and philosophies. • Assumes that existence is concrete and not universal and takes people’s values, languages, worldviews and philosophies into account. • Joins with cultural psychology (how cultural traditions and social practices regulate, express and transform the human psyche) • Sees the self as a collective or interdependent self.
In 1923, Sigmund Freud proposed his theory that the make-up of an individual’s personality is largely governed by three fundamental components: the id, the ego, and the superego. Working through the unconscious and shaping behavior according to psychological fixations and conflicts or lack thereof, these elements evolve through five levels of psychosexual development (Freud, 1962). However, in spite of its compelling approach to the phenomenon, Freud’s structural theory of personality is riddled with limitations and as such, is subject to much criticism. The mind is layered into three states: the conscious, referring to the thoughts currently in our forefront; the preconscious, idle thoughts that can be easily accessed and brought to the conscious; and the unconscious, which houses the more instinctual drives that are repressed because it threatens the conscious’ equilibrium (Cloninger, 1996).
1. The psychoanalytic analysis in general Psychoanalytic criticism was developed by Austrian neurologist and the father of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud. His theory is based on conscious and unconscious functioning, stages of growth, developments in human behavior and normal and abnormal experiences. If we apply some psychoanalytic techniques like flashbacks, childhood memories and regression, we can uncover the hidden meanings, motivations, repressed dreams and wishes within the text. Major principles of Freud’s theory are the models of human psyche, the psychosexual stages, defense mechanism, the Oedipus complex, dreams and dream symbols.
However, in this essay, I will only deal with the three prominent theories, which are, Psychoanalytic theory, Behavioral theory and Humanistic theory. The first part of this essay will evaluate the Psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalytical theory defined and evaluated the development and structure of personality. Freud believed human nature is mostly easily determinable.
His theory describes eight stages of development that occurs in sequence throughout life and unlike Sigmund Freud’s theory, Erickson’s theory is more comprehensive because it encompasses cultural phenomena and mostly applied to therapy with Children and adolescence. (Cloninger, 2013) This essay explores Freud theory of Psychoanalysis and Erikson Psychosocial theory, analyzing, comparing and contrasting the two theories looking at the basic tenets and assumptions
Greenberg (1986) believes Freud’s case studies do not place enough stress on revealing the outcome of the treatment and that Freud’s aim was more to illustrate his theoretical points (p.240). In cases, Greenberg asserts that many of the presented cases would not even be considered acceptable examples of psychoanalysis and, in short, that virtually all of the cases studies had basic shortcomings (p.240). Furthermore, many other powerful criticisms about Freud inaccurate and subsequently flawed evidence have been published. These critics contend that Freud’s evidence is flawed due to the lack of an experiment, the lack of a control group, and the lack of observations that went unrecorded (Colby, 1960, p.54).
Psychoanalytic Theoretical Views Name of theory: Psychoanalytic Theory Founder of the theory: Sigmund Freud View of human nature (include innate capacities/capabilities and motivational constructs): Sigmund Freud viewed human nature as being deterministic and influenced by both sexual energy and instincts (Corey, 2017). He further identifies that soon after birth instincts drive our desire and force internal motivations into the reality of which we live. Although unconscious desires are the driving forces of existence in the beginning, it does not remain the only force through out our lives. We begin to develop into a conscious being as we recognize the world around us. Our external world introduces the conscious mind by showing us moral code, paternal expectations, and presumptions of societal ideology.