Originally from Austria, Sigmund Freud was a trained neurologist who was particularly interested in the human psyche. Over many years, Freud developed a theory to explain human behavior, what we refer to now as “Freudian Psychology.” First, he divided the mind into three levels, and used the analogy of an iceberg to help others understand it. On the surface, Freud identified the Conscious. It is here that most of our decision making and ideas are processed. However, in Freud’s model, this consisted of the “tip of the iceberg” which barely resided above the water. Next, just below the surface, is the Preconscious, which contains all of the memories that an individual can retrieve and bring to the conscious. The final part of one’s mind is the Unconscious. Freud’s writings describe this as being a “cauldron” or “reservoir” of all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings that a person has, but does not necessarily know exists. This aspect resides far below the surface, and comparable to an
“I know how you clutched my back behind your house and sweated like a stallion whenever I come near! I saw your face when she put me out and you loved me then and you do now!” Abigail exclaimed while grasping John’s shirt. “Child..” John said. “How dare you call me a child!” Abby cried throwing him away. “Abby, I may think of you softly from time to time. But I will cut off my hand before I‘ll ever reach for you again. Wipe it out of mind. We never touched, Abby” (Miller Act 1). The Crucible by Arthur Miller is an incredibly complex play depicting the fictional events of the Salem Witch Trials. If one is to begin to dissect the contents of said play, you must look at it from a psychological point of view. Particularly, a view of Freudian psychology might provide insight as to why some characters made certain decisions and carried out the actions they did. Using a Freudian psychological lens to examine The Crucible, readers can take a closer look at the actions of John Proctor and Abigail Williams and form hypotheses as to their deeper motives.
The nature- nurture debate was a debate that was argued a while back. It is an argument till this day in trying to decide which theory in the right theory. The nature- nurture debate is basically a debate about how a human being turns out to be in their life and what determines that. The nature- nurture debate is how both influence a human beings performance. Some argue that people were born to be the way they are on the other hand the other theory is that people turn out the way they are depending on their surrounding and their lifestyle. Nature is when it is genetic and biological influences, Nurture is when it is social, economic and environmental influences. Underneath are five different opinions from 5 different people on the nature nurture debate and which side they agree with.
Psycho describes the mind. The mind can be divided into two parts the unconscious and conscious. Ample of theories are used to finding out the unconscious mind, which many are unaware of. Psychoanalysis is used to treat psychological problems and enhance many lives.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is reflected as the forefathers of psychology and founder of psychoanalysis. Based on Freud’s theories, psychoanalytic therapy is a type of treatment that tends to observe at the background from early childhood to perceive if these situations have affected the individual’s life, or to current issues. (Counselling Directory, 2014)
Sigmund Freud was the first who use the term psychoanalysis in 1896. From that point his theories blossomed. Freud did not invent the terms unconscious, conscious or conscience. However he was successful in making them popular. Freud attained this through his theory of psychological reality, id, ego, and superego. Freud also drove a strong movement that sex drive is the most important motivating force. “He went on to identify that at times in our lives we find different areas on our bodies pleasurable and today these are known as erogenous zones. These ideas mixed together to form Freud’s Psychosexual Stage Theory which is still taught in textbooks today”. This theory consisted of five different stages. The first is the oral stage, in it a newborns to eighteen month old infants find pleasure from the mouth, specifically, sucking. The second stage is the anal stage. It occurs at the age of eighteen months to three years. Freud believed that in this stage children receive pleasure from holding and letting go of their bowel movements. Third is the phallic stage. It starts at age three and end around age seven. In this stage children find pleasure through the ways of touching. Forth is the latent stage. It occurs in children ages seven to adolescence. It suggested that children at this age get their pleasure in order to learn and grow. Fifth and last is the genital stage which begins at adolescence involves finding pleasure in
From the beginning, the therapist had to deal with own doubts and anxiety. The therapist had heard a lot about the psychodynamic psychotherapy but this was the first time he conduct the sessions by himself. Unlike pharmacotherapy, there is no standard clinical practice guideline or recommendation for the therapist to refer to or follow. The therapist was worried that he was unable to conduct the therapy effectively and his patient would not benefit from the therapy. Fortunately, the therapist received a lot of encouragement and support from his supervisor, which enabled him to complete the therapy sessions with his patient.
After that, we can recognize some signs of Oedipus complex in a sense that Gatsby sees Daisy as the woman who is totally different from his mother. Daisy is graceful and rich. Except the Oedipus complex, we can see some signs of Inferiority complex. It is the low self- esteem of some characters. Daisy shows symptoms of Inferiority complex due to the treatment of her husband.
A psychobiography is based on developmental psychology theories, where the theories are based on an individual’s “self” through the use of psychological theories and research. Psychology shares many of its domain with other branches of science, such as, anatomy, sociology, statistics, and even economy. Literature, which reveals human feelings, emotions and inner life, belongs to them as well. It is not uncommon for a writer to use psychological theories in creating one’s fictional characters.
Psychoanalysis is unique in its ”preoccupation... with the purposes and symbolic content of thought”(LaBarre, 1968a,p.85). Freud’s psychoanalytic approach in Anthropology has been highly criticised due to many questions about personality and culture. One question was whether psychoanalytic theories of the unconscious highlight characteristics, beliefs and behaviours in non-Western populations. Anthropologists have argued that Freud’s theory is culture bound. Freud’s theory centralised on the structure of the psyche, which is included within the inner models of reality of the individual in biological and social aspects. The unconscious is a psychic
Psychoanalysis was first introduced by Sigmund Freud and is now known as classical psychoanalysis. The theory, as defined by Sigmund Freud, is the dynamic between underlying forces that determine behavior and personality. He stressed the importance of human sexuality, childhood experiences, and the unconscious processes. However, his theory was seen as misogynistic and narrow focused. Consequently, classical psychoanalysis was criticized and rejected by many scholars. Nonetheless, it had a significant impact on new theories that were later developed. In the mid to late 1900’s, a second wave of psychoanalytic theories were introduced. These new theories branched from Freud’s original idea that an individual’s behavior and personality are largely shaped by underlying unconscious forces, however, the second wave was modified to be more sophisticated and dynamic. The wide majority of Freud’s followers had no problem accepting the idea that conflicts during infancy affect the experiences of an adult, thus, affecting their future personality features. However, the second wave of psychoanalysis emphasizes interpersonal relationships rather than sexual feelings, accepts the study of the conscious mind, and contains a wider variety of explanations. Moreover, the new wave provided the means to advance and expand the psychoanalytic knowledge in the fields of social sciences, history, and humanities. For example, new wave psychoanalysts emphasized the necessity of modifying social
In this article, the author comparing the counseling process and its outcome metaphorically to Freud 's psychosexual stage idea of personality progress. He focuses on similarities between the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages of both Freud 's idea and the counseling route, leading to fresh awareness into the nature of the counseling relationship. To define term of metaphora :"metaphors intend to suggest, and thus to reveal, certain images which enable us to see a likeness between initially different events"(Garcia, John L,2001). That is to explain this comparison is to prove how metaphors can be used to make uncertain experiences; and to offer an idea for refreshing the clinical perspective on the nature of the counseling relationship. Sigmund Freud, was one of the most influential people of the twentieth century ,he was the founding father of psychoanalysis, a method for treating mental illness and also a theory which explains human behavior. Psychoanalysis is often known as the talking cure. He belief that developmental changes happened, because of the influence of the inner drives and emotions on the conduct. He thought that through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas personality develops.
The methodology followed in this paper is going to benefit from various sources like books, articles, and journals. Psychoanalytic Theory will be applied in this paper. This theory lay out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th
A set of assumptions or rules on which the practice of an activity is based on is called a theory. It is also a fundamental or a basis used to account for a situation. There are several theories used in counseling practice. However, in this essay, I will only deal with the three prominent theories, which are, Psychoanalytic theory, Behavioral theory and Humanistic theory.