The aim of psychoanalysis here is to make the unconscious conscious .The concept of the unconscious has deep significance for analytic group therapy. Group counsellor should have an understanding of how unconscious processes operate. This understanding provides group practitioners with conceptual framework that helps them make sense of interactions in a group, even if members do not deal with the unconscious
Sigmund Freud is seen as the father of psychology. He was also the one who came up with the theory about defense mechanisms. He means that people develops defense mechanisms against anxiety. It is a way to distort reality and exclude feelings from awareness, just not to feel anxious. Those mechanisms are functions carried out by the ego.
In general psychoanalysts feel that psychotherapy works best at the point when the therapists concentrates on building up a relationship with the client and for the most part overlook the patient's past. They trust that in doing as such, therapists break clients out of the cycle of identifying with others that they believe keep psychopathology. Burch and Campbell (2013) pointed out that the psychoanalysts who still believe in the old school method are irrelevant today. The current era want a “quick fix” and they are merely forced to change ideas about the therapy they are providing. The unconscious has still has it's place in psychoanalytic therapy but now biological predispositions, early childhood experiences play a vital role on how to treat psychopathology.
Beck (2012), explain what separates psychodynamic theory from other theories and is unique and exclusive, is the concept of unconscious. Psychodynamic theories emphasize the importance of our unconscious mental life. In psychodynamic theory, emotions are data about the inner mental life, and it is in that perspective as the informants from the unconscious that emotions must be understood. Psychodynamics is a collective term for all the models and descriptions of the psyche that are primarily preoccupied with unconscious processes. Psychodynamic theory includes theoretical sub-disciplines about personality, development, groups, including social psychology, leadership, role, organization, and about phenomena such as resistance and relations.
Chapter 12 outlined the psychodynamic approach to leadership, which focuses on the subtleties and undercurrents of human thoughts and behaviors (Northouse, 2016). The basis of the psychodynamic approach is deterministic, insofar as it advances the premise of human behavior having a specific cause or origin. The Clinical Paradigm is a structure used to help explain the basic foundation of the approach and consists of the following: 1) there is always a reason for how people behave, 2) many of the cognitive reasons people have for doing something operate below conscious awareness, 3) emotional expression and regulation is the prime indicator of who a person is, and 4) the interactions with oneself and others is based on experiences from the past
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory suggests that the personality is controlled by the unconscious mental processes that are developed and determined in early childhood. Based on the theory, the personality is made up of three elements. The first one being the “id” which is guided by the pleasure principle and comprises of an individual’s unintentional and natural desires (especially sexual and aggressive ones) which the individual is born with. The second element is “ego” which is developed from the “id” when the individual is around the age of three. It is guided by the reality principle and is seen as the mediator between the “id” and the “superego” due to the fact that it does give in to the demands made from the “id”.
He may experience guilt or feel responsible; this is a manife station of a subject objectifying himself and a consequence of repressive hypothesis by the therapist. In a typical Fruedian society, objectification becomes natural. The psychoanalyst whom the society has certified as capable of treating patients has enor mous power to influence the subconscious mind of his subject, leading him onto a path of normalcy. Freud claims his theory to be essential to the welfare of the individual and society. Due to various underlying assumptions in psychoanalysis, it may sometimes lead to unfair practices of marginalising in society.
Family factors affecting psychopathological symptoms in children: attachment and parental rearing behaviors 1. Introduction Family factors are thought to play an important role in explaining the origins of internalizing and externalizing problems in young people. Externalizing symptoms refer to behaviors in which the child is in conflict with the environment, such as disruptive, aggressive, hyperactive, and antisocial behavior (Roelofs, Meesters, ter Huurne, Bamelis, & Muris, 2006; Yahav, 2007). Internalizing symptoms include feelings of anxiety and/or depression (Roelofs et al., 2006; Yahav, 2007). One important family factor which seems to affect the development of psychopathological symptoms in children is attachment.
By listening and observing them, he came to the conclusion that everything that is done, had an unconscious cause. A way to demonstrates Freud’s perspective is using the iceberg analogy, there are three parts that make up the iceberg, these parts include the id, ego , and superego. The id is basically the drive that doesn’t think the situation through, it is known as the pleasure principle, the ego is the drive that puts the situation into reality, it’s known as the reality principle, the superego is literally the brain of all three. Ironically, the superego is what judges what is right and wrong, also called conscience, an example would be me wanting to eat ice cream. My id yells for me to eat the ice cream right now, while my ego says that I can just eat a small bowl
Freud suggested that the superego acts to perfect and civilize our behaviour and it suppress all unacceptable urges of the id while struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards, rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious. As far as toilet training is concerned, Freud had developed a theory of 'Psychosexual Development '. He developed and advanced this theory focussing on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on a person’s emerging personality. According to this theory, parts of our personality develop as we move through a series of psychological stages.