Freud’s Psychosexual Development Stage Psychosexual development stage is one of Freud’s major contribution to the Psychology field. Some of the concepts were based on his earlier study- the division of mental life into id, ego, and superego. In Freud’s psychosexual theory, each stage represents the fixation of libido (Instinct energy contain in Id). A particular conflict is existed in each stage of the psychosexual theory. One may have to resolve the conflict in order to pass on to another stage.
The first one is the fact that people cannot be think as separate from their relationships. Since relationships are one of the core factors in our life, it would be inevitable to be effected by them in different ways. The way we chose to deal with these relationships may be maladaptive and we need to learn a better way of dealing. PIT enables the therapist and patient to work on the present feelings and thoughts, which may arise in current therapeutic relationship. Even if these feelings and thoughts appears in the therapy sessions, they are also patterns of thinking and feeling in real life settings.
This approach has been customized by some theorists Psychoanalytic terms of concept and procedures and they have formed the theory that each approach more commonly known as neo-Freudians. Among psychologists who have followed the opinion of the theory to customize each one is Alfred Adler who formed the theory of Individual Psychology and Carl Jung who formed the theory analysis. Freud exaggerate the sexual impulses and stimulation has caused many controversies, one impression is a follower and disciple of Freud children have formed their own theories. Most of them receive natural motifs interests are not conscious, but they are putting more emphasis to relations with the public versus ego with ego only satisfactory relationship id's will.
Introduction Psychoanalyst and personality theorist, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), described anxiety as a feeling of danger and threat to which the ego must respond. Even though the original threat, emanates from the psychic energy of other parts of the personality, id and superego, nonetheless, a protection or defense must be launched. “The ego must reduce the conflict between the demands of the id and the strictures of society or the superego” (Schultz & Schultz, 2013). It is the ego that decides the best way to satisfy the impulses of the id and superego, choosing one or two defense mechanisms to deploy within its’ behavior.
In 19th century, Sigmund Freud discovered the psychoanalysis theory that has constructed a foundation about understanding the relationship between preconscious, conscious and unconscious minds later (Freud, 1904). From a psychodynamic point of view, Freud confident that human personality is dominant by the unconscious parts of our personality those we neither have responsiveness nor power over it; besides, Freud also discover a personality model to explain the connection of the minds by using id (unconscious), ego (conscious) and superego (preconscious) (Feldman, 2010). Freud (1923/1960), Freud used his personality structural model as an analogy to explain human mind where id represents our pleasure principle; ego represents our reality principle;
Our identity is what we think of ourselves to be combined with how we choose to express it and further coupled with what others think is the best way of expressing ourselves. It is a thread of overlapping psychological states while being located in different locations. Creation of the self is always an active ongoing process where in, the answer to the question “Who am I?” is given by the story we tell about ourselves which highlights the interaction of the interior development of an individual’s personality and participation in society by internalising the cultural norms, acquiring different statuses and playing various roles in a particular context. It is a combination of our values, beliefs and our personality.
Important concepts in psychodynamic approach to leadership include e.g. the family of origin, individuation, dependence and independence, regression and the shadow self. These concepts come from psychoanalysis and psychiatry and can sometimes be abstruse and not easily understood. That is the reason that there have been attempts to make psychodynamic theory more accessible. The psychodynamic approach emphasizes the idea that people gain their initial experiences with leadership from the day they are born. Under or over gratified at any stage the child may become fixated and this could affect adult behaviour.
According to Sigman Freud, the first key concepts to Psychoanalytic Therapy is Personality Construction. Personality Construction consists of the Id, Ego and Superego. Every individual consist of these elements of personality. The Id is driven by pleasure principal. The Ego operates on reality principal and thinks logically.
The emotional and behavioural consequences (C) of an activating event (A) is mediated by the beliefs (B) that the client has of the event. Hence, disputing (D) these irrational beliefs would cause an effect (E) leading to new feelings (F) and behaviours. Choice theory and “total behaviour” is at the heart of Reality therapy. “Total behaviour” is made up of an individual’s acting, thinking, feeling and physiology. The clients make choices about the way they express total behaviour, although the choices may sometimes be ineffective in fulfilling their needs.
The concept of the theory of projection is that we project our qualities to others in order to understand ourselves. In “Independence and dependence of Self-Consciousness: Lordship and Bondage”, Hegel presented the process of self-consciousness, that we become self-conscious when encounter another self-consciousness. It comes from outside and achieved only by being acknowledged or recognized. Yet, it can see otherness as a threat to itself that both may enter life-and-death struggle to prove themselves and each other (Hegel,
The grandiose narcissist copes with difficulties in self-esteem by viewing themselves as superior and unique and by engaging in grandiose fantasies. Narcissists are very exploitative, entitled, envious, aggressive, especially when they are distressed. As related to borderline, Narcissistic Personality disorder is strongly associated with a history of childhood adversity, including physical abuse and neglect, and with having a parent who was abused or had a previous mental problem.
The definition of morality according to oxford dictionaries, is principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong and good and bad behaviour. It is the difference of intentions, decisions and actions between those that a considered as moral and immoral behaviour. The definition of debate is a formal discussion/ argument on a specific subject in which opposing groups put their argument forward and most of the time it ends in a vote. The assumptions of the psychodynamic approach are that your instincts and impulses are present at birth and the causes of behaviour are your feelings, emotions and childhood experiences.