This essay outlines two of the many perspectives used by psychologists to understand human behaviours, namely Humanism and Psychoanalysis. It gives a detailed discussion on the key factors of the two perspectives and also makes a distinction between such factors. The central ideas of the aforementioned perspectives are also discussed in the essay below together with the methods of discovery used to explore human behaviour. Furthermore, a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of Humanism and Psychoanalysis are outlined in the paragraphs below. The idea of Psychoanalysis was first brought about by Dr Sigmund Freud.
REPORT OF 16PF TEST "Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought” (Allport, 1961). There are various theories which talks about personality. It includes psychoanalytic, trait, learning, biological and evolutionary, and humanistic theories, etc. Psychoanalytic theories of personality originated with the seminal work of Sigmund Freud. According to his tripartite theory of mind, behavior is the dynamic outcome of the struggle between id, ego and superego.
Introduction Personality is a broad feature in the field of psychological individuality. One of the most extensive and prominent topic under personality is the personality-trait extraversion. Even before, there are some people who are talkative, bold and assertive than other people and this has been thought to have a biological basis and social importance. This behavioral consequence of trait dimension has come to be known as extraversion. Extraversion is one of the fundamental dimension of personality (Costa & McCrae, 1992a; Digman, 1990; Eysenck & Himmelweit, 1947; Goldberg, 1990; Norman, 1963), it is used to explain the wide variety of behaviours which is the main concern of personality (Funder, 2001).
According to the Nizkor Project a person can substitute a claim intended to create a sense of pity for evidence found in an argument (Nizkor). This fallacy is known as an Appeal to Pity. The arguer appeals to an audiences feelings in a sympathetic way. This appeal is also known as “argumentum ad misericordiam, the sob story, or the Galileo argument.” (Logically Fallacious) An Appeal to Pity attempts to sway someone using emotions versus using actual evidence. This argument is based on a mistaken belief; because when we are in our emotional state our responses to certain situations are not necessarily the best guide to the truth.
Apart from examining Freudian slips, I would argue that psychoanalysis is useful as a literary lens and not merely a pseudoscience. Psychoanalysis used as a literary lens provokes us to re-examine the concept of the self, the society and the law. In the ‘Brave New World’, there are many instances of psychoanalytic concepts at play. First, the concept of the unconscious mind is demonstrated very strongly through the use of hypnopædia
One of the objections which I consider to be of strength is one regarding the over flexibility of the sanction principle. The in-built nature of utilitarianism as a theory, fails to impose plausible corrective consequences to those actions which do not comply with the stipulated rules of the moral theory. Though the theory claims to not promote actions of self benefit, it fails to blatantly rebuke actions contravening general morality, by offering acceptance to such given that the justification provided corresponds with the guidelines of the theory. This objection is of collorally effect to a line of criticisms. Bernard Williams presents a reasonable flaw of the theory not being able to uphold justice and fairness.
Assumptions of the Psychodynamic theory are as follows :- The most prominent factors responsible for the human behaviour work at the unconscious level. Individuals are unaware of the very serious or of their most important conflict and aggravations. Likely, the anxiety created due to the conflicts might be customised as the defences that are used to eradicate the distress, work at the unconscious level. Areas of Application :- Sex role development Psychoanalytic therapy Personality theory such
Humanistic approach is developed because of the limitations of behavioral and psychodynamic approaches (Jarvis, 2000, p. 61). Moreover, humanistic approach is taken a positive perspective unlike the psychodynamic perspective. Lastly, humanistic perspective’s theories are more subjective and hard to be tested compared to the psychodynamic approach (Jarvis, 2000, p. 74).
CBT is an effective therapy which stretches beyond mental health problems , but is used to manage physical ones too such as IBS, cancer and chronic pain, as Beck himself states CBT; ‘’Has provided important clues to the treatment of a large number of other disorders’’, ‘’Outcome trials have demonstrated efficacy in a number of common disorders’’ (Beck, A.T, 1993) . Proving that this is a diverse therapy which is multifaceted in its approach and also practical, in that it imparts the skills in a patient to recognise what is unhelpful in their thought process or behaviour, and to then overcome these unhelpful thoughts and
Introduction What is counselling? Therapy comes in many forms, from behavioural therapies, to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies to humanistic therapies. Each of these will be discussed in the summary of ‘What is counselling? The promise and the problem of talking therapies. – Feltham (1995)’.