There are many different learning theories and many different theorists with beliefs on how we learn. Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours. Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008) Behaviourism
Understanding the relationship between of culture on psychopathology has been topic of considerable interest. Psychologists have been divided into two main schools, the first being the perspective of cultural relativism i.e. abnormal behaviour must be interpreted within the cultural framework in which the behaviour is happening. It believes that psychopathology and culture are interwoven. The second view believes that culture is important to understand the context in which the behaviour is happening, however there are cross culture similarities as well as universalities in the experience as well as the outcome of psychological disorders.
A theoretical perspective is a set of assumptions about reality that inform the questions we ask and the kinds of answers we arrive as as a result. In a way, these perspectives can be thought of as a frame, which serves to both include and exclude certain things from our view. The following is a very general outline summarizing the theories: Behaviorism, Social Learning Theory, Information Processing Theory, Constructivism and Sociocultural Theory. The first theory is the Human Behavior Theory - Behaviorism is a view that assumes a learner is responding to environmental stimuli. It is learning that is based on external factors that causes changes in observable behaviors.
The main theorist behind the psychodynamic approach is Sigmund Freud. ‘Psychodynamic theorists look for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of motivational forces that often conflict with one another. They also suggest that many of these motivational determinants of behaviour are unconscious’ (Holt N., Bremner A., Sutherland E. et al. 2015 p.628). Psychodynamics and psychoanalysis looks at the ways in which the unconscious mind influences our behaviour.
It’s a quantitative method that is specifically used in psychology researches and it examines whether two variables such as events, behaviuors, properties, and characteristics are casually related. In other words, it is a scientific and systematic approach to research, in which the researcher can manipulate and control the variables i,e an independent variable is manipulated and the dependent variable is measured and it could be called a true experiment. The main advantage of this method is that it allows us to determine and regulate cause and effect, and further it allows us to control the effects of extraneous variables. Experimental method involves some kind of measurement and a mathematical calculation is frequently involved. Latane and Darley used this method to examine bystanders behaviour.
When comparing and contrasting the psychodynamic and behaviourist approach to psychology similarities can be noted in early learning experiences and how this effects adult personalities. The differences can be seen in their views on mental process and in testing each theory. “The psychodynamic perspective searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious process”. (Passer, 2009 p11) Whereas, “The Behaviourist perspective focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions” (Passer, 2009, p13) Sigmund Freud developed the extremely influential and controversial theory of psychoanalysis. Despite the controversy, he had a huge impact on the field of psychology
There are a number of psychology perspectives. These perspectives involve different explanations for human behavior. One of these psychology perspectives is the cognitive perspective. What is the cognitive perspective? Below is one definition of the cognitive perspective.
Compare and contrast Sigmund Freud 's psychosexual theory of development and Erik Erikson 's psychosocial theory of development. Introduction The stages of human development have been a discussing issue among the educators, psychologists and philosophers. There are numerous developmental theories regarding the growth and development of an individual. The two well-known theories are Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Both the theories are correlated with slight differences.
If educators can find ways to support autonomous motivation in the delivery of instruction, then optimal learning can be achieved (Niemiec & Ryan, 2009). Deci and Ryan (2000) postulate that an individual needs intrinsic motivation as well as three intrinsic psychological needs in order to initiate these behaviours and maintain good psychological well-being and self-determination (as cited by Niemiec & Ryan 2009). These universal needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. These components together form the self-determination model which emphasizes supporting student autonomy in order to achieve positive learning outcomes. Intrinsic motivation refers to behaviours done in the absence of external impetus that are inherently interesting and
Rationalism and empiricism are two methods that can be understood under the concept of epistemology, psychology and philosophy of psychology to understand where the source of knowledge comes from. “In psychology and its philosophy, empiricism and rationalism concern the sources of psychological states and capacities that may include, but are not confined to, state of knowledge (Longworth, 2009).” Rationalism states a priori knowledge, deduction and the concept of an active mind. According to rationalist, our minds have innate set of principles and skills. If we only use our logic in accordance with these principles is enough to obtain accurate information about all the objects that make up the universe. “Knowledge of a particular subject