Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
INTRODUCTION Advanced Counselling Theories: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PP) rooted from traditional psychoanalysis theories. PP operates with the basic assumption that focuses on unconscious processes, recognising how a person’s behaviour and feelings in the present rooted from childhood experiences in the past. The objective of PP is to facilitate client to reach self-awareness and to have a better understanding of the problems by identifying the origin of the issues as well as underlying causes that may be present. PP places heavy emphasis on client’s relationships and interpersonal experience (Shedler, 2010). The approach of PP acknowledge the importance of therapeutic alliance.
It was also apparent that the severity of this malformation directly correlated with the age of the child at which the neglect began, and length of time the abuse went on. While Genies’ story is tragic, her case greatly improved scientific understanding of the human brain as it relates to basic childhood development and the need for human interaction. It also helped to show that gaining skills during the critical periods is indeed necessary to at least learn language. Furthermore, the research helped scientists understand brain formation and how neglect affects that process. Finally, the end of Genies’ story showed that even in the face of extreme neglect it is possible to achieve some level of
However, such behaviour becomes part of an individual’s behavioural repertoire through direct reinforcement – when a behaviour is imitated, it receives direct reinforcement (or not). In contrast, the psychodynamic approach requires a combination of both the nature and nurture. According to Freud, both childhood experiences as well as innate drives constitute the personality of an adult. The basis of this is dependent on developmental stages which a
Psycho describes the mind. The mind can be divided into two parts the unconscious and conscious. Ample of theories are used to finding out the unconscious mind, which many are unaware of. Psychoanalysis is used to treat psychological problems and enhance many lives. There are plenty of key concepts in psychoanalytic therapy.
Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2013) describe a perspective of Social learning theory in that previous theorists were interested in the behavioral component of morality. This particular element argues that we as individuals gradually learn to behave morally from an early age. As children grow they will be faced with situations that require them to access prior experiences that lay a foundation of expectations and standards of conduct (Zastrow et al.’s 2013). From an early age children view their parents as role models for doing what is right versus what is wrong (Zastrow et al.’s 2013). Sharaf, Thompson and Walsh (2009) provide an interesting example of this regarding suicide risk behaviors for at risk adolescents in that their findings confirm
Albert Ellis, an important contributor to the ideas behind cognitive-behavioral therapy and the founder of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), discovered that people’s beliefs strongly affected their emotional functioning. In particular certain irrational beliefs made people feel depressed, anxious or angry and led to self-defeating behaviors. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be thought of as a combination of psychotherapy and behavioral therapy. Psychotherapy emphasizes the importance of the personal meaning we place on things and how thinking patterns begin in childhood. Behavioral therapy pays close attention to the relationship between our problems, our behavior and our thoughts.
Development Theory Erik Erikson postulated eight psychosocial stages, an innovation to the five stages development of Dr. Sigmund Freud. Each of the psychosocial stages is marked by a psychosocial crisis that needs to be resolved so that the individual can move on. In these stages especially during the initiative versus guilt stage, Erikson believed that children begin to have the ability to control themselves and now learn to have some influence over others. This stage is the play age of children. Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008).
Conclusion Overall, I find it hard to disagree with Freud’s Freud’s findings or case studies as they may have been a bit extreme seeing that it would not be applicable or considered to today’s standard. However, his theory of personality is very interesting and have good valid theories. I believe that most of his work is unbelievably universally correct, makes sense and have helped expand our psychological understanding of
I understand now how the developmental theories can introduce a clear understanding about the case conceptualization not only for the children, but also for the adults and the children 's future as well. As Adler-Tapia, R. (2012) stated that “The studies included here are about the overwhelming evidence that the earliest relationship not only has significant impact on the child health and development, but even the quality of the individuals future relationship” (p.39). As a future therapist, I need to look carefully to the child 's parent attachment dynamic to understand the child suffers and gain more information about the child which it could lead me to choose the right intervention. As Adler-Tapia, R. (2012) stated that “In psychotherapy, it is important for the therapist to assess the quality of the child 's attachment with parent. The parent 's attachment and trauma history will provide a great deal of information about the relationship between parent and child” (p. 49).
Cognitive therapy deals with the interaction of thoughts and feelings. The main goal of cognitive therapists is to help clients identify destructive thinking and change it into something more positive and constructive. Cognitive therapy was founded by Dr. Aaron Beck in the 1960’s. Beck discovered that depressed patients’ negative thoughts tend to occur spontaneously and irrationally. Through experimentation, Beck developed new methods for patients to identify and change their negative thoughts into something more realistic.
One of history’s well known and most influential psychologist was Sigmund Freud. He founded the study of Psychoanalysis, which is the study of the “unconscious mind”. He also did other studies such as dream interpretations and repression. However, up to this day some of Freud’s theories are controversial in our world today. Freud wrote a book called “Group Psychology & the Analysis of the Ego” where he argues and investigate group behavior is psychoanalysis.