Social Exchange Theory Vs. Self-Determination Theory The often quoted theory that supports and explains the relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Organisational outcomes is the social exchange theory (Blau 1964) and the reciprocity norm (Gouldner 1960). According to the social exchange theory, if the organisation fulfils the employees psychological contracts, the organisation is said to have reached its goal (Rousseau 1995) Critical to this argument is the reciprocity norm which suggests that a generalised moral norm is that individuals are obliged to help individuals who help them . Sticking to this norm employees are motivated to hold negative attitudes which over the time build as deviant behaviours (Bordia
Keynesians initiate a model and identify three categories that elaborate more on the formation of current account. These categories include saving investment balance approach, multiplier approach and absorption approach. In their model to current account they kept emphasis towards saving investment balance approach due to its reality and practicability (Hossain 1995: 1). In order to get some insight of current account let’s start consider the national income equation on expenditure; Y = C + I + G + X-M ………….. (i) Where Y is Income, C is Consumption, I is Investment, G is government expenditure and X –M is net exports (Hossain 1995: 9). We develop another identity of national income on the disposal side i.e.
• Internalization is acceptance of the belief or behavior and conforming both publicly and privately. Deutsch & Gerard identified the Dual Process Model of Conformity (1955) - the two psychological needs that lead humans to conform: 1. Our need to be right (Informational social influence) and; 2. Our need to be liked (Normative social influence) * Research in social psychology focused primarily on two main types of conformity namely Information conformity (informational social influence) and Normative conformity (normative social influence) (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2005). Information conformity * Information social influence happens when a person turns to the members of the group to obtain information.
Through this theory, even everything that is negative about to their job, the benefits or rewards will outweigh the risks. According to Holmes (1981), SET intended to assert the trust between the individuals and the expectation of both parties when it comes to unspecified obligation in the business relationships. Homans (1958) developed the SET to understand the social behaviours of individuals as an exchange of intangible currency like the rewards, recognition, and prestige. One of the themes of this theory is to define the social behaviors as an exchange of intangibles currency like rewards, recognition, and prestige (Homans, 1958).The SET is also applied by Faraj and Johnson (2011) to the concept of online communities where interpersonal interactions in the virtual realm are involved in economic exchanges. This theory intended to have
The roots of social capital originate in the field of sociology and were first developed by Bourdieu (1986) who argues that social capital leads to access to economic resources and Coleman (1988) who studied social capital in a family context (Portes, 1998). In the widest view, social capital contains many aspects of a social context such as social ties, trusting relations and value systems that facilitate actions of individuals located within this context (Tsai and Ghoshal, 1998). Granovetter (1992) argues that social capital is a valuable asset because it gives access to resources as a result of (social) relationships. Burt (2000) recognizes a variety of definitions and describes the social capital metaphor as “advantages that individuals or groups have because of their location in social structure” (Burt, 2000: 347). There is no general consensus about the exact definition of social capital.
LITERATURE REVIEW Schuarts (2003) defined motivation as a set of factors that cause people to behave in certain ways. From the management’s viewpoint, the objective is to motivate people to behave in ways that are in the organizations best interest. According to Kanfer’s (1990) work Motivation is commonly defined as the psychological process that determine or energize the direction, intensity and persistence of action within the continuing stream of experiences that characterize a person in relation to his or her work. As many have noted, such definition essentially describes operations in the small space that unifies cognition, affect and behaviour. Work motivation is not property of either the individual or the environment, but rather the psychological mechanisms and process that connect them.
Hence, these decisions have been based on Maslow 's needs hierarchy, including the factor of prepotency. (E. Gawel, 1997) Models Description Strength Weakness Source Nicholson’s (1977) ‘Attachment’ theory The purpose of this theory was to help predict employee absenteeism • Justification of time and cost • Impractical for large organisation (Nicholson 2007), Steers and Rhodes (1978) ‘Process Model’ This model supports the idea of a relationship between personal characteristics and absence • Theory based which is simple to use • The model only helps in coming up with speculations or proposition. • The model does not also explain the findings from carried out studies. (Brooke, 1986) (Porter and Steers, 1973) (Seccombe,
The attachment and individual has with others will determine the internalisation of conscience, norms and superego Hirshci (2011:20). According to Hirschi (2011: 20), attachment can be defined as the equivalent of the superego or conscience. The existence of the social element known as commitment averts an individual from disobeying social norms and commitment is also the equivalent to the ego (Ortiz, 2007:1). Ortiz (2007:1) is of the opinion that individuals will not disobey social norms if they fear the consequences of their actions. Involvement refers to the extent to which an individual is involved with what society refers to as conventional activities (Ortiz, 2007:1).
“It is important to remember the reciprocal nature of the relationship between the employer and the employees, for what may be right for one, may be an obligation for the other” Venter et al., 2011). According to Venter and Levy rights do not exist within a vacuum, and that there are always obligations that come with them. These rights are usually forgotten by the parties involved within the employment
Social marketing is the most commonly used definitions provided by Kotler and Zaltman (1971). However Lazer and Kelly (1973) provides an alternative definition which is also presented, and social marketing concern is to evaluate the influence of commercial marketing of society: "social marketing concern is application of marketing knowledge, concepts and techniques, enhance social and economic purposes. It is also concerned with the analysis of social consequences of marketing policies, decisions and activities ". ( Critical Social Marketing) Cross culture