Psychological Depression Theory

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Depression can be a biological disease as much as a psychological disease. It is most commonly defined as a lengthened sense of hopelessness in an individual. In the perspective of a psychoanalyst, the roots of depression come from hidden disturbances. This theory of psychoanalysis states that a person’s childhood residue of repressed conflicts and impulses stimulate negative effects on the person, one of which includes depression. Historically, some psychoanalysts believed depression is anger turned inward, or in other words, hatred turned into self-hatred. Sigmund Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, suggested that people protect their self-esteem with defense mechanisms that reduce or redirect their anxiety by instead distorting reality.…show more content…
There are three general elements of psychodynamic therapy. Firstly, free association is when the patient is asked to relax, usually lying down on a couch, and say whatever it is that first comes to their mind. The therapist may sit out of sight in order to create a comfortable and safe environment where the patient is more likely to freely express their feelings and thoughts. Saying the first thing that comes to mind not only helps the patient return to an earlier emotional state, but also helps the therapist look for patterns or certain events that may hold significance. Secondly, therapeutic transference involves discussing the manner in which the patient describes their thoughts and feelings of an influential figure in their life. The therapist then helps the patient better understand how to deal with people in their lives in order to avoid depression. The last element is interpretation. Normally therapists will listen quietly to the patient, but therapists will occasionally inject and offer interpretations on the topics their patient discussed. Dream interpretation was believed by Freud to be very important in order to understand our unconscious minds. The therapist may ask patients to describe their dreams and try interpreting what elements in life has caused them to feel…show more content…
By making negative assumptions about themselves, their situation, and future, people may magnify their bad experiences and undermine good ones. Self-defeating beliefs, negative explanatory style and learned helplessness are some of the causes in which trigger depression. Firstly, self-defeating beliefs refers to overthinking about negative events, causing the person to be more prone to depression. This is especially true among women, but not so much among men: women are more likely to remember both delightful and dreadful moments, while men are more vague on remembering such moments. Secondly, the negative explanatory style is the pessimistic way of blaming one’s self for one’s failures. Depending on what or whom a person blames, if he or she are able to externalize the blame, then he or she is less likely to get depression and instead feel more angered. However, if people blame themselves, they will feel stupid and thus leads them to depression. Thirdly, learned helplessness is a cognitive process in which a person (or animal) feels hopeless after being unable to avoid repeated aversive events. In this instance, men are more likely to feel this sense of withdrawal compared to

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