However, the most common ones that we need to know are: • Anger related – A crime of passion or anger can lead to a lot of things in your life. A common example would be a sexual assault due to a personal grudge on the woman. This is done to defile and degrade the victim as an ultimatum. • Power assertive – A person with underlying feelings of inadequacy feeds their issues with respect to mastery, control, dominance, strength, intimidation, authority and capability only to show their competency. This becomes repetitive and compulsive which leads to a lot of rapes in a short span of time.
Gender based violence is predominantly a male-patterned violence: a prevalent violence committed most often but not always by men and it is often motivated by aggression, revenge, competition, and entitlement. Gender based violence also includes sexual and other violence against women, partners and children. The Centre for Rights Education and Awareness, (2006) viewed Gender Violence as the physical sexual and psychological violation against both men and women, which occurs within the family and the community and is condoned by the government. From the female perspective it can also be defined as violence against women based on women’s lesser status in the society. This includes any act or threat by men or male dominated institutions that is intended to cause physical, sexual or psychological harm to a woman or a girl because of their gender.
This stops us from addressing the real sources of the problem, for example people’s attitudes to violence and to relationships between men and women, also known as gender relations. Myths take away the dignity and humanity of the survivor, causing her more trauma and pain and lowering her chances of recovery. Myths also prevent many rapists from being prosecuted. It is vital that all of us in society reject these myths, so that survivors may fully recover and more rapists be convicted. Note: Many of these myths and facts refer to rape between a man and a woman and the ideas that people have about this.
Many sports organisations do not have adequate mechanisms in place to help protect frightened athletes and to exclude harassers and abusers. . It is not true when some people think that if the victim did not resist it does not count as abuse. This thought totally wrong and hurtful because it will makes the victims difficult to speak out and more likely to blame themselves. The examples of sexual abuse are rough sexual activity, rape and forcible sodomy either oral or anal sex.
Other reasons for victims to not cooperate or fear to report are as follows: "fear of disbelief from authorities, fearing that without significant injuries that the rape will not be taken seriously, harmful publicity, retribution from the rapist, insensitive treatment by law enforcement and hospital staff, rejection by mate or family, blame for the rape". (Crisis Intervention in Criminal Justice and Social Service, Hendricks & Hendricks, P.295). A study was also done that found that age, race and marital status of the victim can play large role in reporting the
The correctional institutes lack the accommodations to aid their broken inmates in struggles that have been present for much of their lives. Additionally, the abuses that occur within the walls of the confinements demoralize the psyches of the young offenders further. “Legal Services of Central New York, a public defenders group, sued officials at the Broome County jail for what it described as "dehumanizing" abuses connected to solitary confinement, ” (“Evolving Attitudes on Solitary for Juveniles”). Through isolation and “dehumanizing” abuses, further psychological impairments are invoked within already crushed young adults. These cognitive
Sexual Violence Sexual violence is an issue that affects countless amounts of people all over the world. It plagues people of all shapes, sizes, ethnicities, and backgrounds. “Sexual violence is defined as a sexual act committed against someone without that person’s freely given consent” (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Online). The act of sexual violence is associated with a long list of public health concerns, including diseases, unwanted pregnancy, physical trauma, mental and emotional suffering, and death. Sexual violence includes and is not limited to, penetration, drugging someone for sexual gains, misuse of authority for sexual gains, peer pressure, unwanted sexual contact, and any other non-contact sexual experience.
When men are incarcerated, gender issues often become heightened as they seek power or control in the prison. According to Kupers (2005), toxic masculinity involves “the need to aggressively compete and dominate others.” This concept may contribute to certain groups holding more power over others, and leads to the formation of dynamics between sub-communities within the prison. Toxic masculinity frequently results in male offenders resisting mental health treatment or other psychotherapy, since it could be perceived by other inmates as a “vulnerability”. Therefore, male offenders often underreport their emotional issues, and may not reach out for help until they have developed suicidal ideation or psychotic symptoms, (Kupers, 2005). Many prisoners adopt this survival mindset, in which there is no room to express pain or emotion that could in any way lessen their “masculinity”.This can become a major challenge in trying to incorporate treatment programs in prisons, especially if they are constantly being resisted.
Inmate-on-Inmate Violence About half of all male inmates incarcerated in state correctional facilities have been convicted of violent offenses, and a large percentage of them have long criminal histories (Seiter, 2008). This sets the stage for a hostile environment. Because of boredom, sexual tensions, and feelings of powerlessness, many inmates engage in violence as a way to mentally escape the reality of prison. Thus, by engaging in proactive aggression, they can focus their attention on fighting other inmates. Consequently, the more they fight, and the more hostile the environment, they more they see themselves as victims and less as offenders.
• Prostitution is harmful in and of itself, i.e. the constantly repeated experience of submitting to unwanted sex is very damaging to women mental health, self-esteem and sexuality. • Having to endure unwanted sex leads to the need to be set apart, often using drugs and for alcohol. • Many women involved in street prostitution do not care of their children. This has a strong impact on the woman themselves and is a common issue they need support through services.