The Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping was developed by American psychologist Richard S. Lazarus. It is used to analyze the complex processes individuals undergo in coping with stressful life experiences. The core assumption of this theory is that coping is a process wherein adaptational outcomes are determined by how individuals appraise stressful experiences, the coping styles that are employed by the individual, and how dispositional and situational factors serve as mediating variables (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Lazarus, 1999). In early traditional approaches, studies have primarily focused on examining the causal relationship between stress and coping. For example, animal experimentations conceptualized stress as a physiological drive that is triggered by negative environmental stimuli.
Cognitive dissonance theory attempts to explain the human behavior through cognition, in which individuals always look for stability in their attitudes and behaviors (Festinger, 1985). In which, if this stability was disrupted then changes to their actions must occur in order for the dissonance created from their behaviors or attitudes to be restored. The uncomfortable feelings produced as a result of dissonance cause alteration in the person’s beliefs which aid in the relief of uncomfortable feelings created
Here my aim is to locate my research where it stands. /while exploring about key term Anxiety, came across certain research papers; They most focused in mental health perspective. With my research I want to know that does disability like Visual impairment, physical impairment, and so on leads to anxiety symptoms dew to certain psycho-socio factors Therefore I should begin with first review paper. As per Margaret Prowse Neylan “A certain amount of anxiety is normal, useful, and necessary. If it is not channeled and put to use, however, it can be debilitating and also contagious”.
The basic premise is that autonomic activity results whenever some organized action or thought process is interrupted. Lazarus and colleagues (1984b; 1978) have proposed a cognitive theory of stress which addresses this interaction. They refer to this interaction as a transaction, taking into account the ongoing relationship between the individual and the environment. Their theory places the emphasis on the meaning that an event has for the individual and not on the physiological responses. According to the Transaction Theory of stress, the cognitive appraisal of stress is a two-part process which involves a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal.
The occupational stress Inventory was developed by Dr.SamuelOsipow to help line of work behavioural counselors in working-out programs to deal with occupational stress (Osipow& Davis, 1998). Osipow's model think of however stress is expounded to the varied aspects of labor roles that are established within the literature. to work out the extent of occupational stress, the individual's slanted negative response to worry should be measured (Osipow& Davis, 1998). Thus, psychological strain is additionally measured, as stress-strain move (Cartwright & Cooper, 1997; Kahn, 1986). below the class of psychological strain, the OSI-R appearance at emotional and subjective.
Research question 3 is to find which type of strategies can be used to overcome stress among teachers. Thus, Chi-Square test was used to analyse the data. We wanted to compare the observed and the expected values. Next, for second research question, the other descriptive measure was used to analyse the data of the sample which the skewness. In this type of statistical analysis, from the shape of the distribution or the degree of symmetry of the sample data, we were able to examine the stress level of teacher due to
The impacts of stress should be handled well by the person affected because this could lead to worse outcomes if the person was unable to use the proper coping mechanisms. Psychological stress is largely affected and determined by the level of perceived stress or our subjective perception of stress. Psychological
lifestyle and health benefits), and sociocultural context (e.g. family, social support, and cultural influences. )” (Crane, Hannibal, 221). A holistic point of view is important as it can be utilised to research into the various factors that play a role in the relationship of stress and illness. Stress according to psychologists can be defined “as a negative emotion experience accompanied by various psychologists, cognitive and behavioural changes” (Crane, Hannibal, 221).
BIO-PSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL USED IN TREATING PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Numerous bio-psychosocial factors like biological, psychological and social factors can work in conjunction and manifest a psychological disorder. If an individual had experienced these factors during his early life, he has the risk of evolving a psychological disorder. Stress that occurs in recent life may precipitate the manifestation of the disorder, and those with vulnerability factors have a higher tendency to develop a mental disorder (Razali, 2009). In this section, one specific bio-psychosocial model used in treating any psychological disorder have been chose, known as diathesis-stress model. DIATHESIS-STRESS MODEL What is the origin of psychological disorders?
According to Girdano and Everly (1988), in their book Controlling Stress and Tension, the main causes of stress or stressor is pressure from a psychosocial perspective, biological and personality. Three sources of stress related to the burden experienced by students identified by researchers of academic excessive burden, relationship intrapersonal, and academic expectations excessively. According to Rocha-Singh (1994, in Nonis, Hudson, Logan, & Ford, 1998), time constraints, financial pressures, academic workload, and problems interpersonal relationships with lecturers, peers, and others provide significant contribution to the stress among