In order to determine what constitutes a good theory, it is important to first understand what a theory is. A theory is described as “a coherent description, explanation and representation of observed or experienced phenomena” (Gioia & Pitre 1990, in Lynham 2000, p. 162). This assignment aims to critically assess and evaluate the Theory of Planned Behaviour against the properties of a good theory and ultimately conclude whether or not the Theory of Planned behaviour can be deemed a good theory. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) focuses on the way in which attitudes and beliefs interact to create behavioural intentions and action. The theory is a built on the Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1971) and an extension of
Is every life a precarious one? If not, how are these levels of precarity distributed? “To be a body is to be exposed to social crafting and form, and this is what makes the ontology of the body a social ontology. In other words, the body is exposed to socially and politically articulated forces as well as to claims of sociality.” (Butler, 2009:3) In Butler’s words, “one way of managing populations is to distribute vulnerability unequally in such a way that vulnerable populations are established within discourse and policy.” (Butler, 2013:171). This precariousness is therefore a category imposed and distributed unequally among populations.
This is done to present the inductive approach as the move from the concept of particularity to generality. This approach is done by taking into account the qualitative approach. The qualitative approach works on assaumptions thus it has a basic deficiency of lascking authenticity. Here, the most probale use of theories is made to justify the assumptions (Punch,
Attribution Theory Attribution theory has a long and rich history in the field of psychology and deals with the subjectively perceived causes of actions and their results. People try – as a “naive scientist” – to draw conclusions about causality from available information. In the context of attribution theory causality does not refer to actual or ‘true’ causality but rather a person’s subjective perception of causes. Thus, this theory is all about explanations of “why” (“Why did I fail the exam”, “Why has the computer crashed?”, “Why have I missed the bus?”) and looks for patterns, consistencies, and outcomes regarding these explanations. Attribution theory has been widely applied to understand, explain and predict human behavior in several
Psychology is the scientific study of how human think, how they feel about issues and their behaviour in this research we will learn the meaning of perspectives in Psychology, dwelling on the biological and behavioural approach, I will discuss the difference and commonalities between the two perspectives. WHAT’S PERSEPCTIVE IN PSYCHOLOGY In contemporary psychology perspective simply implies an approach that involves some assumptions about how people behave, how they function and the best way to define this seeming behaviours. There is no one way to approach this perspectives, one is not above the other, though for a long while the behavioural approach was holding the ace being assumed to be the only scientific one. Each perspective with their good and bad sides, there are many perspective ranging from: Behavioural Approach; Biological Approach; Clinical Approach; Cognitive Approach; developmental approach; evolutionary Approach, Forensic; et al. BEHAVIOUR APPROACH PERSEPCTIVE Behaviourism is different from the environment because people are viewed as being controlled by their environment and that humans are a products of what they learn from the environment (Saul McLeod 2007).
( ) Motivation theories can be broadly divided in two groups: needs theories and process theories. Needs theories address the needs that are unique to each individual and focus on the factors within each person that initiate, guide, sustain and stop behavior. The process of how behavior is initiated, directed, sustained and stopped is explained by process
Expectancy Value theory, denotes that ones ability is based on self-perception (Wiggfield & Eccles. 2000). High and low incentive value goals explicate that people will aspire to conquer goals dependent on the value of the incentive with that of the goal value. Situational and environmental attributions have a vast effect on successful motivation. Various studies have been conducted to determine the specific external factors that lead to the decline or subsequent incline of motivation.
Allport believed that the set of labels that describe a particular person reflects that person’s central traits (those that are usually obvious to others and that organize and control behavior in many different situations). He also believed that people possess secondary traits (those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior). Allport’s research helped to lay the foundation for modern research on personality traits. His focus on the uniqueness of each personality made it difficult to draw conclusions about the structure of personality in general (Bernstein,
In other words, deductive approach is concerned with deducting conclusions from premises or propositions. “Deduction begins with an expected pattern that is tested against observations, whereas induction begins with observations and seeks to find a pattern within them” (Babbie, 2010: 52). Is has been stated that “deductive means reasoning from the particular to the general. If a casual relationship or link seems to be implied by a particular theory or case example, it might be true in many cases. A deductive design might test to see if this relationship or link did obtain on more general circumstances” (Gulati, 2009: 42).
Personality is one of the main areas of psychology research. Over the years, researchers developed theories trying to explain how people are different and similar. Personality traits were grouped together to be determinants of more general traits such as Extraversion, Agreeableness or Neuroticism. The traits were tested for various correlations. All this to better understand why people behave the way they do and how big impact does the personality have on behaviour.