Prejudice is the set of negative attitudes, and beliefs towards certain categories of people or certain individuals within certain categories. Stereotyping is the mistaken
The concept of Blackness or black skin was used for both external and internal characteristics of a “black group” or “race”. Blackness is defined in the “Critical Perspectives on Bell Hook” by Arnold Farr as “the social construction of essentialist racial identities is oppressive and dehumanizing for people of African descent.” According to Farr, the essentialist racial identity is intensified by the system of white supremacy and maintained and perpetuated by blacks who are victims of racial essentialism. Bell Hooks urges, that” racial identity must be deconstructed and calls for a deconstruction of race and post-modern blackness as a way blacks asserting emancipation from white supremacy.” When race is deconstructed it enables anti hegemonic groups to be developed that confronts hegemony or dominant white supremacy. The reason for deconstruction is show that things refuse to conform to the static definitions given. In terms of race, racial essentialism tries to create fixed racial identities that robs or takes away the agency of black people.
Although this piece targets the effect identified as a “Stereotype Threat” there are many more involved. Such as attributional ambiguity, self-fulfilling prophecy, and self-stereotyping. All which have a negative impact on the person receiving the
To Parrillo, a person is not only influenced to have a discriminatory mentality psychologically wise but also socially wise. He presents us with two forms (Socialization and Social Norms) of how an individual is persuaded to incline towards having discriminatory thoughts due to his surroundings. According to Parrillo in “Causes of Prejudice”, socialization is where a person adopts the perspectives and moralities from those who surround her. These perspectives and moralities implement the thought of race as an opportunity to outcast those who do not possess the same benefits as the “inferior” individuals. The term social norms is in a way similar to the term socialization, it just refers to a more personal level of influence.
In Phil Baker’s article, “Guilt and Shame”, Baker reports that when one feels shame or guilt the way they act towards others and perceive themselves is tremendously affected in a negative way. He claims that guilt in not healthy because it harms your relationships with yourself and others. He supports this claim by explaining how guilt is connected with moral and immoral decisions so, when one breaks this bond guilt is used as a tool to try to fix the horrible actions, which is one way our bodies will be affected with guilt (3). Next, Baker determines that by diverting blame or, blaming problems on others is an effect of guilt and will only harm the ones you blame (5). Lastly, another way guilt abuses one’s relationship with others is when
Ellis a former member of the Ku Klux Klan. In this interview, C.P. Ellis illustrates his racist transformation after interacting with African-Americans. Although, there is not a simple answer to what causes prejudice, three of Parrillo’s theories that have an immense influence on becoming prejudice are socialization, economic competition and social norms. A theory presented by Parrillo, is the theory of the socialization process where individuals are heavily molded by the beliefs of those around them, resulting in the individual carrying on prejudiced beliefs.
It is natural for people to categorize and judge others. In terms of judgement, people often rely on different ideas and stereotypes that affect their opinions and may twist their perceptions of justice and how it should be dealt. In the books, Monster by Walter Dean Myers and The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton, justice is heavily influenced by prejudice demonstrated by people judging others based on race, wealth, and social group stereotypes. Initially, the idea of justice is affected by racial stereotypes and prejudice.
In this essay the main focus will be looking at a wide array of perspectives, including local in Hong Kong, global in USA, some solutions, and my own personal perspective. Causes and Effects of Racism: A cause of racism is one’s own instinctive reaction for their protection. People who are racist tend to be people who lack qualities such as self esteem. Racism can come from the feeling of being victimised, worthless and lacking the
When minorities do worse, there are many factors that go into it. According to Joshua Aronson in his article “The Threat of Stereotype”, one of the reasons that minorities sometimes do worse is because of the stereotype threat. The stereotype threat can be summed up as if you constantly hear you are worse at something, even if it is because the color of your
Privilege gives power that accrue members of a dominant group, oppressing the marginalized group. It pushes the dominant people up, while oppressing the minors. Oppression can be prejudicing and/or discriminating a certain group who are below the privilege people. Additionally, intersectionality can play a role between privilege and oppression. Intersectionality privileges a certain race, identity, or sex, but belittles the opposite of race, identity, or sex.