at people have no free will. That behaviour is determined from environment or early childhood. It ignores biological factors, that hormones could affect how a person behaves. Through the female menstrual cycle, the dip in oestrogen and progesterone can dramatically change the female behaviour. Which would not be caused by the environment but hormone level.
INTRODUCTION. A set of assumptions or rules on which the practice of an activity is based on is called a theory. It is also a fundamental or a basis used to account for a situation. There are several theories used in counseling practice.
Psycho describes the mind. The mind can be divided into two parts the unconscious and conscious. Ample of theories are used to finding out the unconscious mind, which many are unaware of. Psychoanalysis is used to treat psychological problems and enhance many lives. There are plenty of key concepts in psychoanalytic therapy.
Many opinions and different theorists will be debated in psychology, the history of counselling, it’s many different theories and researchers that have contributed to the improvement pf psychology and our understanding. Psychoanalysis and its variants • According to Freud (as cited in Feltham, 1995) psychoanalysis is an ever maturing and growing area. Human beings have unquestionable urges that are assessed when a person is an infant.
Sigmund Freud was the founder of Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic psychological approaches. He discovered the unconscious, the complexity of human ego, and many other psychological theories (BMJ, 1936). The purpose of the therapy was to bring repressed thoughts or conflicts into consciousness, thus helping the patient gain insight into the processes of his/her unconscious.
Psychoanalysis is often known as the talking cure. He belief that developmental changes happened, because of the influence of the inner drives and emotions on the conduct. He thought that through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas personality develops.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) believed in a psychodynamic approach to psychology and focused on how the unconscious mind motivates the actions of a person. He believed that the psyche was divided into three parts (tripartite), the id, the ego and the superego, and all three develop at different stages in our lives. Whether we acknowledge the presence of this subconscious or not, it influences greatly the actions we engage in.
Even the name of this approach creates a difference between approaches of the past; in the past the people who came to therapy were called patients, but in this approach they are known as clients. This idea created an idea of equal partnership within the therapeutic relationship, rather than an expert treating a patient. Within this approach, it is the job of the client to improve his or her own life, not the job of the therapist. The therapist is there more as a guide to finding one’s true self, rather than the person in the session who is to give all of the answers away. Because of this unique relationship in each situation, there is a lack of techniques to use within the therapeutic session.
The nature- nurture debate was a debate that was argued a while back. It is an argument till this day in trying to decide which theory in the right theory. The nature- nurture debate is basically a debate about how a human being turns out to be in their life and what determines that. The nature- nurture debate is how both influence a human beings performance. Some argue that people were born to be the way they are on the other hand the other theory is that people turn out the way they are depending on their surrounding and their lifestyle. Nature is when it is genetic and biological influences, Nurture is when it is social, economic and environmental influences. Underneath are five different opinions from 5 different people on the nature nurture debate and which side they agree with.
Psychotherapy has its origins in psychoanalysis, also known as the “talking cure” that was first developed by Sigmund Freud.7 The term psychodynamic refers to the “forces of the mind that are in motion”.8 Freud coined the term psychodynamic when he realised that the mind was an ever-changing system, roiling with constantly moving energised elements. Most of the activities of these mental elements occurred out of the awareness, which Freud described as unconscious. Freud postulated that these unconscious mental activities could affect one’s conscious thoughts, feelings and behaviour.8 Psychodynamic psychotherapy is,
Freud’s theory of personality and psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an neurologist and also known as the father of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud explored the human mind and developed some of the most influential theories in modern psychology and psychoanalysis. He developed a topographical model of the mind, whereby he described the features of the mind’s structure and function. For Freud, the mind is best conceptualized in three distinct components, the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
Therapists must access their own internal process such as their feelings, attitudes and moods. Therapists’, who are not receptive to the awareness of their flow of thoughts and feelings, will not be able to help clients be aware of theirs (Kahn, 1997, p. 40). Though congruence does not mean that therapists have to share personal issues with clients, a therapist must not conceal their inner process from the client, and not be defensive but transparent (Kahn, 1997, p. 41). By being open sometimes a therapist learns more not only about their client but about themselves
Group members who are frustrated are likely to feel angry. They may pick a target to vent their hostility. The therapeutic process in psychoanalytic therapy focuses on re-creating, analysing, discussing, and interpreting past experiences and on working through defences and resistances that operate at the unconscious level. The working-through process represents the final phase of the analytic group and results in increased consciousness and integration of the self.
R. May notes that there is any problem of personality is a moral issue, that is, each person has a problem of its moral implications. Frequently asked in counseling and psychotherapy - "How should I live?" - is the essence of all moral systems. Then there is the second question of the degree of their own consultation process, of the nature and extent of the discussion of values Values consultant who participate in the process of counseling. If the answer to the first question is the problem or the consequence of mental and spiritual sickness client, but not as a subject of morality, the two versions of the extreme positions (8, p.83) may exist on the second question.
Introduction Sigmund Freud is the great theorist of the mysteries of the human mind and a founder of the psychoanalysis theory which was formed in the 1800s, the theory is well known for accessing self-identity and the self in different ways in order to discover their different meaning, (Elliott, 2015). Buss (2008) states that Sigmund’s theory of Psychoanalysis offers a unique controversial insight into how the human mind works in a way that, this theory provided a new approach to psychotherapy, thus it means that it provided a new treatment for psychological problems that even highly qualified doctors couldn’t even cure. (Buss, 2008) According to Cloninger (2013), Erik Erikson on the other hand is the founder of the psychoanalytic-social Perspective which is mostly referred to as psychosocial development theory, Erikson became interested in child development when he met Anna Freud and he trained in psychoanalysis and with his Montessori diploma, he become one of the most influential psychologist of the 20th century. His theory describes eight stages of development that occurs in sequence throughout life and unlike Sigmund Freud’s theory, Erickson’s theory is more comprehensive because it encompasses cultural phenomena and mostly applied to therapy with Children and adolescence. (Cloninger, 2013) This essay explores Freud theory of Psychoanalysis and Erikson Psychosocial theory, analyzing, comparing and contrasting the two theories looking at the basic tenets and assumptions