Historically, some psychoanalysts believed depression is anger turned inward, or in other words, hatred turned into self-hatred. Sigmund Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, suggested that people protect their self-esteem with defense mechanisms that reduce or redirect their anxiety by instead distorting reality.
All mental behavior had an unconscious cause. He believed in talking and listening to a individual talking about their unconscious personality’s. So, they could work out their problems rather than giving them medicine or a lobotomy. advantages of psychodynamic is that it made the case study popular. It emphasizes the importance of childhood because it explains how certain mental diseases and trauma starts from childhood.
Starting with Sigmund Freud as he is especially known for studying and inventing the extent that can explain the process of the human mind psychologically and determining what causes the effect it has on the individual that is then displayed to the outside world, both aware and unaware. Freud also focuses on the healing techniques for the patient, discusses dream work, and the core of repression. In creating psychoanalysis, it can help explain and deduce the deeper mental attachments of what is happening inside of Charlie’s mind and his actions showing those attachments. Charlie has suffered from trauma from the death of his Aunt Helen, repressing sexual abuse from her, and the death of his best friend, Michael. Charlie is diagnosed with a mental illness called PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder).
The contrast of these two psychotherapies lies mostly in the techniques being conducted. The interpretative therapy, which is also known as insight therapy is conducted by trained professional and represents the therapy based on interpretation of clients subconscious motives, defense mechanisms and transference reactions. The process of interpretative therapy may be prolonged. While, on the other hand, supportive therapy is conducted by by a therapist aiming to, by any practical means help the patient with their emotional distress. It includes counseling, advising attentive listening.
A Meta-Analytic Review on the effect of Mindfulness-Based Theory on Anxiety and depression. Firstly we have to have a clear understanding of mindfulness and what it is about. It means maintaining a moment by moment awareness of ones thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations and our surrounding environment. Mindfulness also involves acceptance, which means that we pay attention to our thoughts and feelings without any judgement or belief for instance that there is a “right or wrong” way to think or feel at different times. When we practice mindfulness, our thoughts tune into what we’re sensing in the present moment rather than rehashing the past or imagining the future.
Drive-reduction theory approaches motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. Cingulate cortex is a primary cortical component of the limbic system involved in emotional and cognitive processing. Psychoanalytic theories are a breakdown of the ego, becoming overwhelmed by the demands of the id and result in childish infantile behavior. Stress-vulnerability model is an explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity or vulnerability that develops under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress. Personality disorders adopt a person to a maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions.
The primary purpose in psychodynamic counselling is to release repressed emotions and experiences so as to make the unconscious motives conscious. That is, to enable individual to review feelings, thoughts, early-life experiences, and beliefs to gain insight into current problems and patterns of behaviour. It is stated that by identifying recurring patterns, the individual may perceive the ways in which they avoid distress or develop defense mechanisms as a method of coping so that they can take steps to change those patterns (www.goodtherapy.org). Freud’s stage of psychosexual development (and Erikson’s psychosexual stage of development) is a framework that the counsellor may use for the understanding of key developmental tasks characteristic of the various stages of life. The core principles of psychodynamic approaches to counselling include: The belief that early childhood experiences and past events, often unconsciousness, determine how people feel about themselves and their world.
This model is predicated on the notion that individuals suffer from erroneous and illogical thinking processes, which contributes to the development of abnormal disorders. When considering OCD, cognitive theorists believe that individuals who do not know how to ignore negative thoughts create measures to neutralize them (Comer, 2013, p. 130). Since it is closely related to OCD, cognitive psychologists would likely view the development of trichotillomania in a similar fashion. Hair-pulling, therefore, becomes a means of neutralizing negative, unwanted thoughts. Overtime, this turns into chronic hair-pulling as a means of dealing with stress, anxiety, and discomfort.
Evaluate the psychodynamic perspective to human behavior The psychodynamic perspective is a theory in psychology deriving from the work of Sigmund Freud. It focuses heavily on the unconscious mind and the fears, wishes and fantasies that are stored there. Sigmund Freud’s version also states that virtually all human behavior is motivated by sexual and aggressive urges and that the experiences we have as a child are what form our personality as adults. According to this perspective mental disorders arise from repressed conflicts that are stored in the unconscious and they can be treated by psychoanalysis. The goal of psychoanalysis is essentially that the patients become aware of their unconscious conflicts through free association and interpretation
Whereas Gestalt therapy can be limited, per Kirchner (2000) the "limitation is related to the fact that a Gestalt therapist uses his/ her own person as a therapeutic medium for change" (Kirchner, 2000). The counselor who uses Gestalt therapy has to be self aware and be able to adhere to the principles of Gestalt therapy. Where person centered is about the individual and the ability to experience life in a positive way. Sometimes a person’s environment is out of their control making their lives seem unmanageable. In my opinion focusing on the client’s environment can be counterproductive.