Rachel Danzig AP Psychology Dr. Eisen August 20, 2015 I. Psychology’s History A. Psychology’s Roots 1. Prescientific Psychology a. Socrates and his student Plato stated that the human mind is separate from the body and our knowledge is born within us b. Aristotle, Plato’s student, disagreed, concluding that knowledge can not be preexisting and we grow it from our experiences within our memories c. In the 1600s Rene Descartes believed that the mind can survive the body’s death and our brain holds animal spirits in its fluid and flow from the brain through nerves enabling reflexes d. In 1620 Francis Bacon established that humans functioned around order and patterns e. Adding to Bacon’s ideas was John Be a smart test-taker i. Take time to read prompts, questions, and organize your points III. Careers in Psychology A. What Psychologists in Various Professions Do and Where They Work 1. Basic Research Subfields a. Cognitive Psychologists look at biology and the correlations with memory, perception, memory, and judgment, and they can work as professors, or specialists in schools or businesses b. Developmental Psychologists study research changes due to age in regards to behavior, they can work in educational and school psychology or gerontology c. Educational Psychologists are involved in psychology pertaining to learning i. Provide ways to improve learning environments or methods ii. Could be employed by the government or employee training programs d. Experimental Psychologists work in research institutions, businesses or government facilities and study behavior in animals and humans to gain, in their subfield, scientific information for future useable data e. Psychometric and Quantitive Psychologists study data and methods to gain psychological knowledge i.
"The Power of Situations”, by Lee Ross and Richard E. Nisbett, explains to the reader that the way humans respond to a situation is looked at wrong by most individuals. The authors tell how most people look at the wrong side of situations. On most occasions people look to see who the situation is happening to, instead of focusing on the situation itself and the proper responses that one would expect to see. The information in this passage would be most relevant to a student pursuing a psychology degree. Although, it could be read with purpose by anyone with interests in psychology. The authors provide accurate and significant information, while giving a great interpretation for the reader to understand.
According to McClintock’s scholar-practitioner model, it expresses an ideal of professional excellence grounded in theory and research, informed by experiential knowledge, and motivated by personal values, political commitments, and ethical conduct (McClintock, 2004). As for Capella's scholar-practitioner learning model, learners acquire additional research skills, apply appropriate theory and research strategies, and share knowledge through scholarly publications and presentations (Capella University, 2003). When one looks deeper within both models, they get to view the many similarities that each hold to one another. Both reflect on how theory and research influence professionals to strive and succeed within their work.The aspects that McClintock’s model supports Capella’s range from acquiring and processing information to extracting and evaluating questions. This shows that as scholar- practitioners we are continuing to learn and be educated.
Johnson explains in his book that psychology and Christianity went hand-in-hand as a coalition. This is seemingly due to the church’s assumed responsibility of soul-care, and the belief that all problems were caused by sin, not necessarily mental illness (2010). However, there are currently several views of conflict between psychology and Christianity, similar to the conflict recurrently found between science and faith. There is importance in the correlation of psychology and Christianity for both scientists and Christians. When not examined and pondered on, the relationship between psychology and Christianity today can cause much confusion in an individual, potentially leading to atheism and evolutionism. On the other hand, not examining the relationship between psychology and Christianity can also lead to the close-minded belief that science is evil, and that the only way to any kind of truth is through Christian faith and belief in Christ. There are seven models presented by D.N. Entwistle (2015) that are worth studying when determining how one views the relationship between psychology and Christianity. Upon reflection and examination of the seven models, it appears that the Allies model best explains the relationship between psychology and
There are many paradigms in psychology such as structuralism, cognitive, psychoanalysis, behaviorism which is the most common and of course humanistic psychology. These were very important to psychologists, it helped understand and identify different aspects of life. From the way one behaves to the way they think, see and hear. The way we feel and act turns out to be a big part of our mind. We think and do certain things for what reason? Humanistic psychology was found to describe and help everyone understand why we behave and sometimes need certain things. We all share characteristics such as love, grief, happiness, caring, self-love. There was a reason why we felt these certain emotions,
Psychological research and its findings have profound impact on people, relationships, and institutions in our society (Willig, 2013). However, as any other study, psychological researchers are faced with enormous limitations including inappropriate designs or methodologies due inadequacy of professionals (Wang, et al., 2015), geographical differences that impacts on generalizations (Smith, 2015), and time pressure that negatively affects the quality of a research (Punch, et al., 2014). Language barrier and lack of literature or poorly done review are other factors that affect psychological research (Willig, 2013).
The more I realize I don’t understand, the more I discover my desire to know more about psychology.
There are four main perspectives in psychology. These are known as; biological perspective, learning perspective, cognitive perspective, and sociocultural perspective. Each perspective aids in the understanding of human behavior. However, not one perspective can explain all of human behaviors. This is due to each perspective playing different roles in ones behavior. To fully understand human behaviors scientist must understand the four perspectives.
In Is American Psychological Research Generalizable to Other Cultures, two psychologist, Gerald Haeffel and Jeffery Arnett discuss their reason for supporting their beliefs on the topic of American psychological research generalization to other cultures. This is an important topic within psychology because the decision on what to do will affect how psychologist are allowed to do studies and it could also possible make it harder to construct research because the participant will be harder to find. This will be harder because right now most psychological research is done at colleges and university and that will not be able to happen if they need to find people and participants from all over the world.
In the article, “Beware the Biomarkers for Criminal Behavior,” Kira Peikoff analyzes the expanding use of brain imaging and biomarkers to predict criminal behavior. She describes the expansion of these technological advancements as a possible violation to an individual’s basic civil rights of innocent until proven guilty. Piekoff expresses that with these growing advancements in this technology a fine line between science and morality should be explored with caution. Our society today may consist of individuals with mental defects, but where is the line drawn in depicting a future crime without infringing on an individual 's basic civil rights.
Unfortunately, such misconceptions about psychology abound and part of the confusion stems from stereotyped portrayals of psychologists in popular media as well as the diverse careers paths of those holding psychology degrees.
For instance, in a Washington Post news article published in 2014, Abby Phillip reports that a researcher, Dong Pyou Han, manipulated data regarding an HIV vaccine that supposedly worked on rabbits for personal fame. Phillip reported, "the rabbit blood became contaminated with human antibodies ... Instead of admitting them, [Han] continued to spike future samples... results that were considered to be a breakthrough" (Phillip). Humans are often willing to defy their own values and morals to achieve personal fame. Because recognition and prestige are such emotional luxuries, many people will ignore the consequences of their actions. Han 's recklessness conquered his logical reasoning for the sake of academic prestige. Similarly, in an informative article posted by CNN in 2011 by Elizabeth Cohen and Miriam Falco, Dr. Andrew Wakefield was bribed by lawyers who wanted to sue vaccine companies. Cohen and Falco explain that Wakefield received "payments by lawyers and through legal aid grants that … he hoped would benefit him through diagnostic and other tests for autism and MMR-related issues" (Cohen and Falco). Aside from personal prestige, scientists may easily falsify data in return for money. This communicates the idea that science should be regulated to some degree because manipulation of data can lead to
What is psychology? Psychology is not only the study of behavior and of the mind. It is also the scientific study of the brain and of why we do certain things.
Psychology is defined as “the scientific study of the mind and behavior” (Introduction to Psychology, 2015). Psychology provides an overview of biology and behavior, sensation and perception, learning, memory, intelligence, language, motivation, emotion, abnormal psychology, and therapy (PSY 102 Course Syllabus, 2018, pg 1). Because psychology allows for a better understanding of how the mind and body work, this knowledge can be beneficial for any field of study or career. The theoretical and practical understanding of the basics of psychology can help with decision-making, critical thinking, stress management, time management, better understanding of others, improving communication, and even achieving goals and objectives, all components that allow someone to be more successful throughout their life.
In the shorter term (3 years), I want to graduate from HELP University’s Degree of Psychology in first-class honours. I understand claims stating such academic achievement is merely a graduation certificate, without guarantee of work opportunities. However, my aim is not motivated towards work opportunities or anything materialistic; I just want to appreciate and value every learning opportunity. Besides viewing this process as a foundation for future knowledge and abilities, I have been anticipating this stage of gaining deeper and professional knowledge in psychology for a long time. To summarize, this goal is elicited from my passion and enthusiasm for psychology, to remain focused throughout these three years, instead of gaining fame or impress others.