Standardized intelligence testing has been one of psychology’s ultimate achievements. “Intelligence tests are psychological tests that are designed to measure a variety of mental functions, such as reasoning, comprehension, and judgment.” ("Intelligence tests," n.d.) They can help diagnose knowledgeable disabilities or measures a person’s knowledgeable potential. Alfred Binet was the first French Psychologist who created the first intelligence test in the 1900s. Then after, in the late 1800s, Henry Herbert Goddard, Psychologist, translated the Binet test from French to English. Originally, the tests were to measure basic knowledge of children in the United States to assist with support of mental health diagnosis.
Individuals across the world use various types of personality tests to assess their levels of expertise based on several subjects of interest. The online site, The Human Metrics Jung Typology Test, has created personality test in which one is able to determine a potential career based on several multiple choice questionnaires about their personalities. The test concludes by providing four letters which symbolizes a personality trait and a suitable career for the individual. The humanistic theory of personality developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers can interconnect to the career personality test. This theory stems on the idea of self-actualization and the need to achieve one’s full potential in life after receiving their basic needs.
Clearly, intelligence cannot be inferred from a simple pencil and paper test alone. These tests cannot measure skills such as creativity, thought-analysis, willingness to learn or even character traits such as leadership and integrity. Standardized test can only measure isolated skills and cannot begin to assess “the large domain of knowledge and skill that students possess” (Harries and Smith 2011). The test
The Turing test has become the most widely accepted test of artificial intelligence and the most influential. There are also considerable arguments that the Turing test is not enough to confirm intelligence. Legg and Hutter (2007) cite Block (1981) and Searle (1980) as arguing that a machine may appear intelligent by using a very large set of
(2013c) it was psychologist G. Stanley Hall who developed one of the earliest measures of interest. His questionnaire was comprised of items devise to appraise a young student’s enthusiasm in a number of leisure activities. Edward K. Strong Jr. initiated a blueprint of methodological examination in this field in the early 1920s, leading to the development of the Strong Vocational Interest Black (SVIB). The latest version was labeled the Strong Interest Inventory, Revised Edition (SII; Strong et al., 2004), added new items to represent present-day career interests such as those related to computer hardware, software, and programming. Since the Strong Vocational Interest Black is more inclined to measure interest in professional fields, another interest inventory was developed by Clark (1966) to deal with the non-professional field, the Minnesota Vocational Interest
As stated by the State Board of Education (SBOE), using the psychometric approach, a student may qualify as gifted on the foundation of mental ability and achievement evaluations only, regardless of how they may perform in creativity and motivation. There are a variety of instruments used to measure general intelligence, but the Stanford-Binet Scales, Woodcock-Johnson, Weschsler Intelligence Scale-Adult or Child form (adult form: WAIS, child form: WISC) are examples of prominently used forms of intelligence assessment. Perhaps the most persuasive argument for psychometrics is the predictive usefulness of these evaluations. IQ
(Casswell)" Even though the test is widely used by companies, they did not create it. The Principles of the MBTI were conceptualized by a Swiss psychologist named Carl Jung. When Carl Jung studied psychology, it was an undeveloped field. He did not use the scientific method to test his theories nor did he have any peers to review his work. Jung organized personality traits into 4 different categories, each including 2 different types.
The 11+ an IQ test used to determine the type of school a child would attend was highly influenced by psychologist Sir Cyril Burt, Burts research appeared to show that intelligence was largely inherited and could be measured. It was right to assume that a child should then go to a school that suited their intelligence and abilities, although in the results of the 11+ there was a strong suggestion that class had a major influence on the results of the test with middle-class children getting higher scores therefore many more middle-class children gaining entry to the grammar schools. Burts research was later discredited because much if his research had been invented. Although research still showed there was a connection between measured intelligence and achievement in education (Haralambos, M., Holborn, M. 2000). Arthur Jensen (1973) an American psychologist defines intelligence as "abstract reasoning ability" and argues that it is simply a small
Psychology determines what people perceive to feel and behave, but underlying it all, ultimately determining the way we act, feel and behave, is biology. A biological perspective is relevant to psychology in the study of how the nervous system and hormones work, how the brain functions and how changes in structure and/or function can affect behavior (McLeod, 2007). One example of a psychological field which incorporates biology is Psychobiology. Psychobiology, also known as behavioral neuroscience, is the study of the biological substrates of behavior and mental processes. It utilizes the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and animals.
Psychometric test is used to identify the mental characteristic of people and put a measurement against such characteristic (Roberts, 2005). Most of the psychometric tests are professionally designed by occupational psychologists with detailed manuals providing the data to establish the reliability of the test and how test scores might be judged. They are scored in a standardized manner so that employers can compare their test candidates against the scores of relevant populations (CIPD, 2015). The inbuilt measure and checks can identify whether the candidates are dishonest. Therefore it is a more objective and free from bias way of assessing candidates.