This theory suggested that sexual abuse occurs due to a variety of neurological, biological and ecological factors which interact and lead to clinical symptoms that contribute to the occurrence of abuse (Ward & Beech, 2006). An individual’s genetic predisposition along with social learning have a significant impact on brain development and result in the establishment of three interlocking neuropsychological systems (Ward et al., 2006). According to the ITSO genetic predispositions and social learning interact to establish individuals’ psychological functioning. The level of functioning in turn may be compromised in some way by poor genetic inheritance, biological issues or developmental adversity (Ward et al., 2006). Such functioning problems can result in an individual struggling to cope adaptively, and resultant vulnerabilities may lead to sexually abusive behaviour under certain circumstances (Ward et al., 2006).
One major line of research offers explanations to the development of psychopathy. This line focuses on the biological effect it has on a person that could lead in becoming a psychopath. Past research studies have suggested that when an individual with psychopathic tendency imagine others in pain, brain areas necessary for feeling empathy and concern for others fail to become active and be connected to other important regions involved in affective processing and decision-making. One of the theories that offer an explanation to the biological effect that contributes to the development of psychopathy is that psychopaths lack the feeling of empathy unlike a normal person. The one research study that has been conducted to prove this theory was
In the biological unit, we analyzed the functions of the brain, hormones and neurotransmitters and human behavior which are just a few of the examples that concluded in a consensus providing individuals with robust knowledge of the course. In the sociocultural level of analysis, we discussed topics such as stereotypes, culture, social identity, conformity, and compliance. Many research studies have been performed regarding these topics resulting in a consensus and providing individuals with accurate knowledge of the subject matter. A topic that is widely debated in the biological unit and is contradicted by many psychologists' experiments that we evaluated is the theory of whether or not intelligence is inherited or developed over time. In the sociocultural unit, we examined the social cognitive learning theory which states that behavior from members of a group, is based on the observed consequences of that behavior; this theory was developed by Albert Bandura and is proven to be a valid theory resulting in consensus and
This essay outlines two of the many perspectives used by psychologists to understand human behaviours, namely Humanism and Psychoanalysis. It gives a detailed discussion on the key factors of the two perspectives and also makes a distinction between such factors. The central ideas of the aforementioned perspectives are also discussed in the essay below together with the methods of discovery used to explore human behaviour. Furthermore, a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of Humanism and Psychoanalysis are outlined in the paragraphs below. The idea of Psychoanalysis was first brought about by Dr Sigmund Freud.
The nature vs. nurture debate is a philosophical, scientific, and cultural, debate about what causes an individual’s actions, personality, and most importantly their behavioral traits. Nature can be defined as someone’s influence from genetic behaviors, while nurture is caused by someones environment and experience. Nature is how a person acts based on their genetic inheritance and some other biological factors, they have been proven to be an important factor in the development of many mental health conditions such as depression and being bipolar. Whereas nurture affect those mental health conditions where a person develops that illness depending on their environment. Frankenstein can be seen as a prime example of the Nature versus Nurture
With a vigilant method and belief on the DSM, psychologists might have more information to make a precise diagnosis of personality disorders. An explanation of your rationale for assigning the diagnosis on the basis of the DSM: According to Paris, antisocial personality disorder is characterized by manipulativeness, deceitfulness, callousness, and hostility as well as by dis-inhibition (Paris, 2013). Psychopathy, is a term used by Cleckley (1964) is a different concept and its research is linked with a standard and widely applied clinical rating scale, the Psychopathy Check List (PCL) Paris, 2013). The other terms used for this disorders are sociopathy, or dissocial personality disorders (APA,
Criteria of Psychopathology The Webster’s English Dictionary defined Psychopathology as the scientific study of psychological disorders. Psychological disorders, most common to people’s awareness as abnormal behavior is defined by Barlow and Durand (2015), as a psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not atypical or culturally expected; psychological dysfunction basically refers to a breakdown in an individual’s cognitive, emotional and/or behavioral functioning (Stein et. al, 2010). It was observed over time that researchers, clinicians and mental health professionals have put forth their efforts to define and give array of answers as to what makes
Where the individual must develop and evaluated the meaning of self-aspect (Harter, 1989). The more than theoretical dimensions of the conceptual distinction between personhood, personality, and personality disorder also become apparent in discussions about classification. Definitions of disorder articulate distinctions between disordered and just improper behaviour. Psychiatrists, lawmakers, and the general public may differ with respect to the question of where to draw the boundary between evil and ill. Psychiatrist’s some-times feel urged to treat persons with behavioural problems who do not con-form to the definition of any personality
History of the social sciences have made record of the different personalities and attributes that make up an individual. Having data can be of later reference to learn more about people and the way they interact with their environment. Studies in personality have helped develop testing and therefore able to have evidence about future outcomes. As a social scientist, Erich Fromm looked into the way people feel about their position in the world. He accepted that the world can be a corrupt and immoral place to live in.
Psychiatry was involved in personality disorders, which then were connected to psychopathic behaviors, which are considered aggressive and antisocial. 3.2 Criminology According to Bartol, in an article titled Psychiatrist and the science of criminology: Sociological, psychological and psychiatric analysis of the dark side, he argues three things: Conformism, non-conformism, and neutral. Conformism states that humans are favorable, conforming people; therefore, doing what society deems good. This theory further explains that humans are strongly influenced by values and attitudes of the society in which they live in. Additionally, Merton R. K. 's theory demonstrates that education, social structure, and family influence can help access the