Stephen Chapman’s essay “The Prisoner’s Dilemma,” compares two different cultures and their ideologies with regards to justice and punishment. Chapman’s topic can definitely be seen as controversial as it questions the morality of both foreign and western societies justice systems. If one is not reading and thinking objectively it can strike a mine is better mindset within the reader in the first page of his argument. The viewpoint he takes is not one that is commonly displayed nor talked about. Stephen Chapman’s claim in the essay is essentially that western societies prison system is a more cruel form of punishment than middle eastern practices of physical harm.
Criminal profiling, also known as offender or psychological profiling has been defined differently by different scholars. It is defined as "an educational attempt to provide investigative agencies with specific information as to the type of individual who committed the crime". (Vernon J. G.,1996) It refers to criminal investigation techniques adopted to set up the profile of the offender who is more likely to commit certain crime by gathering evidence and information from the crime scene, victims and witnesses. (Norbert E., 2007) Whereas David Canter sees it as "criminal shadow" and says that psychological traces or patterns are often left behind by criminals. Adding more, he stated that personalities of criminals can be monitored through his
Over the course of this paper, Sykes and Matza’s Techniques of Neutralization theory will by analyzed for critiques. This theory has already been discussed in part one of Theory Application and Critique assignment. The Techniques of Neutralization theory has both positive and negative aspects which correspond to the critiques of the theory. The first critique will focus on how Sykes and Matza only theorized about juvenile delinquents and their negative deviant acts, and the second critique will show that this theory can apply to wide range of crimes such as sexual abuse and corporate crimes. One negative critique of Sykes and Matza’s Techniques of Neutralization theory is that initially it only pertains to negative deviance of juvenile delinquents
The articles “Machine Bias” by Julia Angwin, et al. and “Should Prison Sentences Be Based on Crimes That Haven’t Been Committed Yet?” by Anna Maria Barry-Jester, et al. and the short story “The Minority Report” by Philip K. Dick share a common theme. Except that “The Minority Report” is a work of fiction, whereas “Machine Bias” and “Should Prison Sentences Be Based on Crimes That Haven’t Been Committed Yet?” are based on real life events. In other words the characters effected by Precrime are imaginary however the people who are mentioned in the articles are real, with real world consequences given to them by a potentially bias computer algorithm.
It addresses the legal issues at stake in findings of criminal responsibility. The finding of this introduction explains the criminal responsibility of serial killers and how difficult it is to put them behind bars. The introduction will be used in my essay to help explain the difference between mad serial killers and mentally-ill serial killers. Biagi-Chai, Francesca. 2012.
proven as an effective theory (Akers 1998, 200; Agnew, 2005). The general theory of crime and delinquency shares some of the strengths of social learning theory except this specific theory focuses on a bigger picture of what causes crime and is showed through what Agnew refers as life domains (Akers 1998, 200; Agnew, 2005). The theory also focuses on risk factors and explains how people go through these risk factors across their lifetime (Agnew, 2005). The weaknesses of this theory is that it lacks empirical testing just like the labeling theory but a strength is that social learning theory, deterrence theory, rational choice theory, and Thornberry’s interactional theory of delinquency have been empirically tested which supports this theory
Sutherland’s theory of Differential Association takes a macro level analysis as to why people commit crimes and brings it to a micro level analysis. He concludes that looking at a multiple factor approach did not explain why crimes are committed. Instead he asks the question what one singular factor touches on these multilevel factors. Sutherland looked for the universal explanation as to why crimes are committed rather than looking at individual reasons. His theory seeks what has always been present in crime and what has not or better yet what mechanism or experiences correlate to the crimes committed.
"While I do believe being tough on crime is a good thing in general, it's the role of the judge to determine it." Mandatory minimum sentences often tie a judge's hands, robbing them of their right to tailor sentences to a specific situation. I suppose tough-on-crime laws “worked" if success is only measured by the increase of prisoner populations. However, one of the unbelievable little details of this new tough-on-crime stance is how differently the federal government views crack cocaine and powder cocaine. I am thankfully not an expert on cocaine or its use, but a cursory Google search tells me that crack cocaine is just powder cocaine mixed with baking soda.
Since there are many traits of psychopaths or people with antisocial personality disorder have in common, it is hard to differentiate from them. In Criminal Behaviour: A Psychological Approach, Bartol and Bartol reference the American Psychiatric Association to define antisocial personality disorder as “a pervasive pattern of disregard for , and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.” while they explain that the modern use of the term ‘psychopath’ is “used to describe a person who demonstrates a discernable cluster of psychological, interpersonal, and neurological features that distinguish him or her from the general population.” (Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M., 2011, p.171-172). So not all people with antisocial personality disorders have psychopathy and visa
Strain theory however takes a completely different approach and examines the social strain as humanities punishment. Work within the structure society has product or become members of a deviant subculture to achieve the same goals, just through alternative means. Strain theory was designed to explain why U.S.A had a large influx in gangs. Therefore, examples of crimes under strain would be selling or associating with illegal substances or becoming involved in illegal activities such as theft. Strain theory clearly explains that “people turn to deviance in the pursuit of widely accepted widely accepted social values and goals”, Robert K. Merton.
Even with a matured technology, an immense amount of follow-up and research will still be required, and then who is to determine if the outcome will ultimately benefit the greater good or if an injustice will be imposed among the individual with no prior criminal history. Peikoff conveys both opposing and supporting outcomes of the public administrating this information, which includes: employer and academia abuses through unwarranted rejection or the ability to predict if a convicted criminal will be a repeat offender. The ultimate concern remains, can an individual be judged on actions not yet committed; therefore, being ruled by the what if? Piekoff ties the premises together by then expressing that acting on “biological predictions” (2013) would violate basic civil rights through the disregard of the Fourteenth Amendment, equal protection for all. A society who punishes individuals before proven guilty, solely based of scientific research, undermines the foundation of a free democratic country.
Brain anatomy, genetics, and a person’s environment may all contribute to the development of psychopathic traits. One of the factors used from the study of psychopathy is recognizing dangerous characteristics. In which, often pass unnoticed until they commit a horrific crime. However, not all psychopaths are criminals – some psychopathic traits are actually linked to success. There’s a particularly interesting link between serial killers and psychopaths steaming from characteristics.
General deterrence and Specific deterrence at first glance seems like it runs hand and hand. As you look closer and understand it better, you come to the realization that they are two different topics. General deterrence is focused on the legal punishment if you are caught committing a crime. Specific deterrence focuses on punishment of criminals that are apprehended. So many question still remain on how effective both deterrence really are.