Good and Evil Are not Real The concept of good and evil is one of the most foundational apothegms ever known to humankind. It was a crucial stepping stone for other morals, and it is what averts society from pandemonium, by providing structures for laws. But, one may ask oneself; where did the conceptualization of good and evil arise? I believe that good and evil does not exist and are entirely artificial. Ludicrous is what one might be thinking after I’ve stated such a radical exposition, but I disagree and can justify my argument with factual evidence.
In The Uncanny, Freud strongly emphasizes the study and beauty of the fearful and the terrifying. He elicits this subject as what is left behind of aesthetics. Aesthetics is the theory of quality of feeling, which essentially includes positive and negative feelings. However, this theory, in its existence, has neglected to include the uncanny, preferring to concentrate on beauty and, generally, on more positive emotions. In Freud’s essay, he glorifies the subject of the uncanny by examining and elaborating on the feelings evoked by anxiety and why they are crucial in the minds of individuals.
But Baudrillard goes on to argue that 9/11 defies not just morality, but any form of interpretation. This statement feeds back to the earlier idea that the sheer size and scale of the attacks and their enormous visual symbolism posed specific problems for writers attempting to accommodate the subject into conventional fictional narratives. Indeed, contrary to Amis; assertion of a literature that would stand in opposition to what he sees as irrational, religious violence, the realist novel has struggled profoundly to represent the
A massively important aspect of Friedrich Nietzsche’s ideology about master and slave morality comes from the information frequently relayed about the history of morality, along with the ignorant perceptions of English philosophers. He mentions that these philosophers create their ideas from unhistorical standpoints, and “…it is certainly a shame that they lack the historical sense itself, that they themselves have been abandoned by all the beneficent spirits of history” (14). Nietzsche indicates that these theories about morality reference good and bad through the utility of different actions, but he claims that is on the opposite side of the spectrum when looking at it from a
Pain is a natural reaction to any type of adversity, yet victims of abuse are usually not physically harmed, rather their mental state is afflicted. “psychic pain…is an evolved, adaptive motivator for changing behavior....the psychic pain involved in detecting betrayal, as in detecting a cheater, is an evolved, adaptive motivator for changing social alliances” (Freyd, 317). The motivation behind the repression of the potential psychological pain that could occur if the victim doesn’t repress their knowledge is akin to Freud’s claim that the motivation is to avoid the pain of feeling shameful about acting upon unacceptable impulses. Thus, repression can be motivated not only by the betrayal, but by the psychic pain that comes along with having the knowledge of betrayal. Further, the traumatic experience does not have to be the root cause of the memory blockage, the abuser themselves can motivate repression.
Some of the recurring themes in works of postmodern literature turned out to be paranoia, minimalism, metafiction and twists on heroism. Heroism came to be a debatable topic in analysis of postmodern literature because of the arguable diversity between the novels. However, it’s sole purpose was not just to entertain, but like most art, for the author to express themselves in a way they haven’t been able to. As a result, Catch-22 presents Yossarian as an anti-hero used by its author, Joseph Heller, to introduce his opinion on war, war heroes and the current social status of the United States. The altered perception of heroism, believed to be present in only some works of postmodern literature, is used to convey the author’s state of mind to the reader in an
This is not a way to fight against establish society as it may seem, but a way to reaffirm the necessity of rules and customs in maintaining social order in the minds of the younger generations who may hear these stories. In this way the trickster is a cautionary morality tale and an instructive tool warning them not to act like him. The most central trait to the trickster figure portrayed, besides these, is the contrary use of his creative and destructive powers which speaks to the very message of ambiguity and liminality within the tradition of trickster mythology. Beyond the combination of opposite concepts, the trickster represents the chaos of all contrasting elements of the world which these tales attempt to
The eye of the beholder is the one that creates the society of their choice. Therefore, in the end of Catcher in the Rye Holden Caulfield is the problem, not society, but this is not a surprise because Holden is the most overly narcissistic and selfish characters to ever have the unwarranted and unnecessary fortune of having an entire book written about him. Holden’s perceptions of the world around him say more about him being the problem than society being the problem. Society is what people make of it, if a person surrounds themselves with counterfeit people than their society will appear to be counterfeit to them. Holden constantly complains about society and the world around him, it’s always too much for him, it’s always forgery.
According to Pope, “Dulness” presides over the literary creations of the hack writers and is promoted by patrons who cannot appreciate art and publishers who prioritize profitability. Thus Dulness is when the literary spirit lacks talent, imagination and good taste. Pope believed that the introduction of the printing press would have a negative impact on the society and in order to protest against the deterioration of Augustan literature, and subsequently the society, Pope deploys The Dunciad as a
Jeremy Bentham’s original ‘act’ theory of utility, argues that a good action produces pleasure, regardless of legalities, condoning drug use. However, Mill averred that “actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” (Mill p. 155), so actions should be assigned quantities based on the extent in which they foster happiness. Here, intellectual pleasures provide sustained satisfaction while sensual pleasures are short-lived and shallow. Accordingly, the shot-term elation produced by drug use may be assigned a relatively low worth of ‘5 hedons’. Conversely, the destruction of families due to the volatile temperament induced by recreational drugs would have a lasting effect – a value of ‘-200 hedons’ would be plausible.