The theory of psychosexual development was presented by one of the most prominent psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and characterized how personality develops during the course of childhood. Whilst this theory is widely known in psychology, still, it is one of the most controversial. Freud believed that the individual develops via a series of childhood stages throughout which the energy of pleasure-seeking of the id is focused on certain erogenous areas. According to Freud, if all these stages are completed successfully, a healthy individual is a result. However, if the person will remain “stuck” on a certain stage, problems in future life may occur.
If the parents do not take their responsibilities the children fail to their live span. Freud mentioned that the first five years of life are vital to the making of adult character. The id must be well-ordered in order to fulfil social demands. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for satisfaction into socially suitable goals.Freud believed that most people would successfully meet the challenge of each stage and move to the next. He also believed that some people did not successfully meet the challenges of a stage and became fixated or obsessed with that stage and thus their development was hindered.
These crises are of a psychosocial nature. Successful completion of every stage leads to a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues according to the theory. The eight stages of the psychological development are as follows. (McLeod, 2008) 1) Trust vs. Mistrust: Erikson’s first psychosocial stage occurs in the first year or so of life. The infant is uncertain about the world in which they live during this stage.
Erick Erikson’s Theory Erikson’s stages of psycho-social developments comprising a series of eight interrelated stages, this is where a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy until they reach their late adulthood. However, if an individual child had a terrible past, they might unable to cope with scenario’s that life present later. Per Erikson’s theory, he proposed that our lifespan model of psycho-social development, taking in five stages up until a child reached the age of nineteen years and other stages occurs through their adulthood. To begin with, the first stage which
If the changes in one’s life structure comes too abruptly, this crisis is the resultant effect. As much as this period typically involves entering ‘social adulthood’ by way of becoming a vibrant part of the workforce as well as commencing parenting, it is indeed a period of critical decision making, one which defines the rest of that quarter lifer’s story. Though legally adults, the significant gap between the legality of adulthood and its functionality also poses a major challenge to the quarter lifer, and the result of this lag between legal and social adulthood is uncertainty about their status as adults, they know that they are potentially able to carry out some tasks and make some critical decisions, but really, can they? And as a researcher, Arnett rightly noted, there are frequent re-organizations of social groups, changes in residence and relationship status. As well, there is an unparalleled relationship between quarter life crisis and such risk-taking behavior as substance abuse, and
In the other aspect of Freud work was his theory on the psychosexual stages McLeod (2008), states that in 1905 Freud proposed the psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages, the reason why it is called psychosexual stages is because each stage represents the fixation of libido on a different area of the body (McLeod, Psychosexual: Simple Psychology, 2008). Freud stressed that the first five year of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality, if each stages are not controlled properly it can cause a conflict at each stage of the psychosexual stage, if these conflicts are not resolved before the individual can successfully advance to the next stage (McLeod, Psychosexual: Simple Psychology, 2008). Both frustration and overindulgence may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation refers to the theoretical notion that a portion of the individual libido has been permanently invested in a particular stage to his development (McLeod, Psychosexual: Simple Psychology, 2008). The first stage in the psychosexual stages of development is the Oral stage, Freud went on to describe this stage which occurs during the ages of 0-1 years when the libido is centered in a baby 's mouth where it gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido which is the demand from the id (McLeod, Psychosexual: Simple Psychology, 2008). Freud said Oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation later in life which are
The introduction of monogamy was partially brought about by the need for caregivers for young offspring; Children need several years of guidance and care until they are ready to be independent, especially in the more advanced and complex society of modern day. With monogamy, there is a secure nurturing connection for the child with not only the mother, but the father as well, and that is believed to assist in accelerating the growth and development of the child’s brain. This attachment between mates and their offspring is rooted in human hormones, which demonstrates how a monogamous society is far from unnatural for humans. The ratio of men and women also becomes much more equal through monogamy than through polygamy, which leads to less competitive mating issues that develop with a gender imbalance. Even more, it is found that in modern polygamous societies, most people naturally end up with a sole partner despite their sexual “freedom”.
Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development analyses the influence of independent factors, society and parents on development of personality from infanthood to adulthood. Corresponding to Erikson’s theory, every individual has to progress through a sequence of eight interconnected stages over the complete life cycle. The eight stages consist of: Stage 1 – from Birth-2 years of age (Infancy) Trust vs. Mistrust This first stage focuses on the infant’s primary needs being fulfilled by the parent/s and this communication provoking either trust or mistrust. Erikson defines trust “as a fundamental and necessary sense of an individual’s self-worth”. The infant relies on the parents but particularly the mother, for nourishment and happiness.
Lastly, Freud’s psychosexual theory was strongly criticized by opposite gender- female. In the phallic stage of psychosexual theory, Freud’s believe that girls will desire their fathers and develop penis envy (this is not initially Freud’s idea, he believe it at first, but then reject it). However, females claimed that Freud would not understand their life progression due to gender difference. These criticisms and controversies all make Freud’s proposal less valid and
According to an article published by UCLA, boys and girls develop at different rates. So, it would be more effective for students in single-gender schools, and it is more beneficial for their academic readiness. Which is according to a study published by the Connecticut Education Association. The differences in boys and girls brains reflect upon their behavior, learning, and development. So if they are put in a school with their own gender, they will learn to accept their differences, and not hide them.
These laws, then, uphold old notions of chastity and virginity, while providing a weapon against men from social groups we do not like. They also deprive women in their mid and late teens of choice under the guise of protecting that choice. The highly “patriarchal and paternalistic” law is what Delgado sees an area for further revue. With the lack of women being charged for such crimes, he questions things such as pressured intercourse and sexual love involving two consenting individuals. He also believes that women are scarcely charged with statutory rape because it is how it “should be.