When the abuse and neglect are caused, by parents or another significant figure a child, becomes confused because their supposed source of safety is the source of their harm. (Frederico 343). Maltreatment has a severe impact on a child’s current and future functioning and development regarding their emotional, social, cognitive, behavioral, and physical wellbeing. (Frederico 345). Different types of abuse, such as physical, emotional, and sexual have different consequences, but the consequences of all maltreatment, are likely to happen in three stages.
The tragic death of Allie has caused Holden to express low self esteem, self destructive behavior, and devious actions. Through Salinger’s use of dialogue, it helps express Holden’s behaviors and thoughts towards facing different situations that arise throughout the novel. Salinger also presents Holden in first person, which allows the reader to enter the fantasy world and suffering of which Holden is encountering. Salinger as the author, incorporates his own troubles into Holden's character, which connects the author and the protagonist. Salinger not only develops the story, but he also weaves in how Holden is different from most adolescents, especially through his behaviors.
The Psychodynamic approach was created by Sigmund Freud, the theory is over 100 years old, Freud was interested in helping people, he mainly looked at the unconscious mind, he also looked at relationships and what the functions of our dreams are. Freud developed stages of development which consist of 8 stages, trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, ego identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generativity vs stagnation and ego integrity vs despair. His stages focus on the needs for healthy development at a certain age, and social crises. If someone accomplishes this then they develop a basic virtue which can then be used to work our crises in later life, failure can result in an inability
Although the affects that divorce has on a child differs depending on the child, and their unique circumstances, years of research continue to reveal the negative effects and influence it is has on children and the development of their personality. While it is not guaranteed that divorce will alter a child's personality, it does greatly increase the possibility. No matter what age a child is, divorce introduces a massive change into their life. Adjusting to this monumental life change can cause a child to suffer from symptoms of psychological distress, and emotional scars that could possibly last into adulthood. A child suffering emotionally from their parents' divorce could develop new personality traits as coping mechanisms in an attempt to deal with their deep and lasting emotional trauma.
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
It is now too often the case industry conveys that information about mental disorders. While this education may be very beneficial in sensitizing populations to the mental health needs of children and adolescents it also holds the risk of distorted messages being conveyed to an anxious and needy populous, may limit the full potential of an appropriate diagnostic evaluation and limit the treatment options considered. Furthermore, oppression and domination are known to impact children and young adults in the foster care system. “Young people that are obstructed or prevented from becoming competent or from being able to communicate their opinions, desires, and emotions experienced a form of oppression” (Bruskas, Delilah, R.N., M.N. 2008).
Two major themes of family dynamics and childhood victimization are a constant thread found in juvenile delinquency research and literature. Specific family structures contribute to the likelihood of delinquency more than others. Nuclear, blended, parental cohabitation, single parent, and incarcerated parent family structures affect the incidences of juvenile delinquency to varying degrees. Adding one variable on top of others compounds the stressors that increase the probability of juvenile delinquency. Each style of the family unit has traits that alter the risk of delinquency.
The child behaviour changes and develops in a morally suitable way and adopt the values from his/her parents; new skills and knowledge. Lastly, the Genital stage (12 years and up). This is the last stage of the personality development where puberty begins. During this stage, if all other stages have been successfully achieved, the teenager develops an appropriative sexual behaviour that may lead into a loving relationship, marriage or child birth. Conclusion Overall, I find it hard to disagree with Freud’s Freud’s findings or case studies as they may have been a bit extreme seeing that it would not be applicable or considered to today’s standard.
1. What do you know about the negative effects that isolation can have on families? The negative effects that isolation can have in a family are devastating. As it’s explained in our book, “Isolation has a number of negative effects on families. It limits role models for children.
His theory explains that if these basic needs are not met, the infant will not develop trust and present anxious behavior. This data is supplemented by Bowlby’s attachment theory, which expresses insecure attachment in infancy causes increased behavioral problems later in development (Carlson, 1998). By experiencing an unsafe environment as an infant, Erikson believed that the infant would grow up untrustworthy of others. Muhammad was faced with adversity as an infant. The adversity presented in his life challenged his personal and spiritual self-development.