This cipher is a form of polyalphabetic substitution. In this cipher we make a key before encrypting the message so that it is a bit more secure. In this method the key shifts the alphabets according to its position. In this encryption the key needs to be known for the person decrypting it because there are about 26n possibilities where n is the number of letters in the string. For example let the code be: “mybirthdayisinjanuary” and let’s take the key to be “math” Plain Text m y b i r t h d a y i s i n j a n u a r y Key m a t h m a t h m a t h m a t h m a t h m Encrypted Text y y u p d t a k m y b z u n c h z u t y k Thus the encrypted text cannot be broken easily and if someone tried without a key there are 265 ≈ 1.2 X 107 possibilities unlike the Caesar cipher with just 25 possibilities.
Two parallel connected DT systems with impulse responses h1(n) and h2(n) can be replaced by a single equivalent DT system with impulse response, a) h1(n)*h2(n) b) h1(n)+h2(n) c) h1(n)-h2(n) d) h1(n)/h2(n) 11. Sectioned convolution is performed if one of the sequence is very much larger than the othernn in order to overcome, a) Long delay in getting output b) Larger memory space requirement c) Both a and b d) None of the above 12. In overlap save method, the convolution of various sections are performed by, a) Zero padding b) Linear convolution c) Circular convolution d) Both a and b 13. If x(n) is N1 point sequence, if y(n) is N2 point sequence, if rxy (m) is the correlation sequence starts at m=m1, then the value of m corresponding to last sample of rxy (m) is a) b)c)d) 14. For a system, y(n)=nx(n), the inverse system will be, a) y(1/n) b) y(n)/n c) ny(n) d) n-1y(n) 15.
For example; M = 4 bits, N = 16 bits If P(j) = 1 (Propagation); then Group(j) will be skipped X(j): m-bits of group (j) Y(j): m-bits of group (j) Cin(j): Carry in to group(j) Cout(j) = Cin(j+1): Carry out of group(j) = Carry in to next group(j+1) (j): Group(j) consisting of m-bits numbers to add Fig 5.14: Carry Skip Adder Block diagram Table 5.3: Carry out Cases Table Case Xi Yi Xi + Yi Ci+1 Comment Ci = 0 Ci = 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 Kill (STOP) Carry In 2 0 1 1 0 Ci Propagate Carry In (P) 1 0 1 0 Ci 3 1 1 0 1 1 Generate (Carry Out)
View the derivation of baselines first and check the number of loops which have passed but if one loop fails then the network adjustment will fail the statistical test of 95% confidence. The adjusted coordinates cannot be treated as final coordinates but can be used as a check of provisional coordinates. Open the report view to view the final coordinates list. 5.1.2. CORS Network This is the process where the researcher had check the reliability of the Trigonometrical stations which have been used as reference stations.
#Name:M.Waleed Liaqat #Student Number:10385830 #Unit Name :Programming Principle CSP5110 #Instructor name:Greg BAATARD #Campus:Joondalup import json def inputInt(prompt): while True: try: myInt = int(input(prompt)) if myInt < 1: print("input value should be at least 1 or greater") else: break except ValueError: print("Enter Integer greater then 1 or integer value") return myInt def inputSomething(prompt): while True: userInput = input(prompt) if not userInput.strip(): print( 'Please Enter SomeThing ! ') else: break return userInput def saveChanges(data): f = open( 'data.txt ',
CRC delimiter must be recessive (1). ACK – Recessive bit is sent by transmitter, node receiving correct message writes this recessive bit in original message with a dominant bit, which is indication there is no error. If node receiving message detects error then it leaves this bit recessive, message is discarded and the sending node repeats the message after re-arbitration. In this way, each node acknowledges the integrity of thae data. ACK is of 2 bits, first is acknowledgment bit and the second is delimiter which is always
An immaculate deconvolution system is exhibited as takes after: 2.1.2 Linear Predictive Coding In talk taking care of, figuring the LPC coefficients of a sign gives us its ak values. From here, we can get the channel A(z) as depicted beforehand. A(z) is the trade limit between the first
One of them the probability of success over the total amount of outcomes. Since the probability of each outcome or day depends on whether the day before was already used, it is necessary to apply the formula for the probability of two dependent events. According to the textbook, Advanced Mathematical Concepts, precalculus with mathematical application, “ if two events, A and B, are dependent, then the probability of both events occurring is the product of each individual probability.” Because, the probability that every birthed is different and the probability that at east two people or more will have the same birthday is complementary, we use the formula 1-P( every birthday being
Rejewski used a mathematical theorem—that two permutations are conjugate if and only if they have the same cycle structure—that one mathematics professor has since described as "the theorem that won World War II." (Solving Enigmas Wiring) The radio operators would code the first 6 letters in the global settings of the settings for the rest of the message. The first six letters would be a repitition of three letters e.g. XYZXYZ and the coded message would be ABCDEF As the code was a repitition of itself Rejewski deduced that X was A and three letters later X was
The preceding figures shows the Fibonacci and Galois implementations of maximal length shift register m-sequences. As can be seen in these figures, m-sequences contain m shift registers. The shift register set is filled with an m-bit initial seed that can be any value except 0 (if the m bits in the m shift registers are all zero, then it is a degenerate case and the output of the generator is 0). The following examples demonstrate bit generation. 1.
We characterize the points of confinement of an interim by utilizing diverse sorts of parentheses and notations which demonstrates the barring and including of numbers. Inequality: Inequality lets us know about the relative size of two qualities. When we need to realize that something is greater or littler then we utilize inequalities. Absolute value: All the values which could not expressed in negative conditions and we have to convert it into positive like (area, volume and distance etc) are called absolute value, or we can say absolute value is the modulus. Question #3: What are functions?
Our protocol takes two integers decomposed into encrypted bit vectors [a][b] and outputs the greater integer. In this configuration cloud 1 (C1) has the encrypted bit vectors of the integers being compared and cloud 2 (C2) knows the private key. The protocol is as follows in a very concise form. we can say with firm conviction that vector [Y] consist of encrypted zeros at every location except one location which holds the value of encrypted one. This distinct location identifies the first position where vector [a] and [b] differ.
From the design specifications, we know that Q = 0 if DG = 01 and Q = 1 if DG = 11 because D must be equal to Q when G = 1. We assign these conditions to states a and b. When G goes to 0, the output depends on the last value of D. Thus, if the transition of DG is from 01 to 10, the Q must remain 0 because D is 0 at the time of the transition from 1 to 0 in G. If the transition of DG is from 11 to 10 to 00, then Q must remain 1. First, we fill in one square belonging to the stable state in that row. Next a dash is entered in the squares, where both inputs change simultaneously.