CHAPTRE TWO 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction The literature review provides background information about the study that supports the validity of the investigation. So, the study reviewed different literatures written by different scholars and institutions related to challenges of good governance in public institutions in general. Especially it provides in depth literatures about good governance in public institutions by providing different theoretical reviews, previous research out puts and different empirical data.
(2013), a valuable way to perceive accountability is to differentiate between virtue and mechanism. As a virtue, accountability is seen as a quality during which an individual displays a willingness to simply accept responsibility, a desirable attribute in public officers, government agencies, or firms; therefore, during this use, accountability could be a positive feature of an entity. As a mechanism, accountability is seen as a method during which an individual has a potential obligation to clarify his or her actions to another party who has the right to pass judgment on the actions as well as to subject the person to potential consequences for his or her actions. The study therefore investigates the effects of accountability as a
3.2.1 Ideal or bureaucratic approach In this approach, structures of groups are evaluated in relations of their horizontal and vertical difference as well as the span of control. Policies are examined as well as the framework of purpose is determined 3.2.2 Structural-functional approach This is a very popular approach for associating various administrative structures. It studies the society in relations of the numerous structures and their functions for getting an understanding concerning their positioning and functioning. Organisations in this approach can refer to the government. The only limits of this approach is that there has to be correct identification of the organisations before examining them 3.2.3 Ecological approach The ecological
Performance measurement systems are quantifiable tools used to evaluate the desired goals and objectives of a public organization and private business. Across the board, performance measurement information identifies the efficiency, effectiveness, and progress within groups of individuals based on goals, past events, and behaviors of that organization. Data compiled from these process provide insight and implementing a plan to improving the management, financial status and individual performances for intended groups and organizations. Author Robert Behn describes and breaks down the importance of performance measurement identifying critical components specific to public managers in his published article, Why Measure? Different Purposes Require
This essay seeks to define what contribution good governance makes to an organisation in the not for profit sector. The essay explores in depth what good governance is and what it entails. The essay also investigated to impact that bad governance has on an organisation and how it impacts on the wider context. Governance is seen as a board issue, it is about making sure that the organisation has a clear mission and strategy. governance is about ensuring the the mission and strategy not solely focused on developing it.
Easton's system theory can be used worldwide to understand each country’s system and its policies. Easton believed that the input was essential because the government needs to create internal feedback and then support for that internal feedback in order to issue laws and run the country. Inputs are demand or support. They are the raw material or the information that the system is called upon to process and the energy to keep it going. Meanwhile, the outputs become the mechanism of the support: this might be a political decision or policy.
He has the power to set up an operation in the temporary organisation or deviate from the functional processes in the primary organisation for the accomplishment of the anticipated result from the project. According to Turner & Muller (2003), there is need for the project owner – the client to initiate a higher level of authority and organisation to supervise the operations of the project manager who is the chief executive officer of the temporary organisation and also to ascertain that the goals set by the project manager correspond with the goals of the client. A proper and appropriate check need to be in place in order to be sure that the issues of ethical threat are known ahead of time. In temporary organisation, the probability of personal stake or influence is more dominating and noticeable. Thus, the authority of the project manager should be specified and supervised for conformity.
It is an obligation for the government to do something in order to cultivate this value to the society at large and to the organization; public sector especially. From that, the government has come out with certain program or plan. Firstly, National Integrity Plan (NIP) was launched in April 23, 2004 by Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi at Putrajaya. NIP was aimed to develop an ethical Malaysian society imbued with a strong sense of right and wrong (Bernama.a., 2004). According to Bernama (2004), in order to monitor the implementation of the plan and to ensure the plan can effectively minimize the corruption and abuse of power, he also launched Malaysian Integrity Institute.
Van der Waldt and Du Toit (1999:39) write that public officials are subjected to influences within and without the public sector, which may render them susceptible to unreasonable conduct, bias, nepotism and corruption. Mafunisa (2002:192-193) suggests that concern with ethics in the public sector focuses on what is considered to be the right and proper behavior of political office bearers and public officials. According to Mafunisa (2002:192-193), public functionaries are expected to act in an acceptable, effective, efficient, accountable, proper, fair and equitable manner in the execution of their official duties. This source further claims that public functionaries may be corrupt, because of self-indulgence and corruption, “The nature of human beings means that we must accept that unethical behavior by political office-bearers and public officials might probably occur. Therefore, students of Public Administration and practitioners in the public sector should be able to identify unethical conduct and devise measures to combat
(1992), one of the issues of any democratic order is the legitimation it requires from its citizens. The measure of concurrence of these residents to key components of vote based system, their readiness to take part in governmental issues to a specific degree, and their capacity to relate to the majority rule framework on a fundamental level are issues that are key to the survival of the framework. The more possibilities a popular government manages both institutionally and procedurally to touch base at an agreement, to show responsibility, and to distinguish actually with majority rule government, the more prominent are the odds of accomplishing usefulness, soundness, and permanency. Contrasted with the unitarian framework, the federative framework upgrades these odds extensively. (Sosmeña,