They exercise authority with well-defined rules & regulations. Therefore, bureaucracy is an organization, with well established rules, regulations, powers and functions. The following are the basic features of his theory of bureaucracy: • Bureaucratic organization is based upon a well-defined hierarchy. This hierarchy, based on authority, has trends in the downward direction. Authority flows from top to bottom as shown in figure
In 1867, two powerful anti-Tokugawa clans, the Choshu and Satsuma, combined forces to cause the fall of the shogunate. The following year, the Meiji Restoration was announced, under which the 14-year-old Emperor Meiji would rule in his own name. Japan was therefore launched into the modern world after 250 years of peace and isolation under the Tokugawa shoguns, leading them to open up to Western trade and influence once again under the new
The government in Japan signed trading treaties which the daimyo and samurai were unhappy with the government decisions. The Japanese wanted to limit the western influences and maintain their independence which created the rise of nationalism. In 1866, the Tokugawa Shogun was overthrown by the feudal lords and samurai. The new emperor eliminated the government and reestablished the imperial throne, but the emperor did not have any political power and was seen as a political symbol. The Meiji Restoration began in 1868 to 1912 which transformed Japan society with western influence but maintaining their cultures and traditions.
Curtin Nancy (1998). ‘Ideology and Aims.’ In The United Irishmen: Popular politics in Ulster and Dublin 1791-1798. Oxford: Claredon Press, pp 13-38. Dugdale-Pointon, T (2006) Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html Dwyer, Phillip (ed.) (2001) Napoleon and Europe.
The Bureaucracy and the American Dream The relationship between bureaucracy and the government is that it posted a lot of challenges since its inception (Warner). Bureaucracies are very relevant because they are the working machinery of the government (Lazo). Embodied with different functions, they are supposed to carry out their responsibilities effectively and efficiently. But because bureaucrats have their own interest, their purpose is sometimes, if not often, defeated. With Americans embracing the American Dream, bureaucratic agencies should implement laws and make rules that would make this American Dream realistic.
Imperialism in Japan Background: Japan prior to the Meiji restoration was ruled in a hierarchy very similar to other European countries. The hierarchy was that of lords, samurai and then peasants. The Japanese equivalent to a king at the time was a military dictator called a shogun. During this time the capital was Kyoto and the shogun was part of the Tokugawa clan. That is why this period is referred to as the Tokugawa Shogunate.
The concept of organizational politics started getting of academicians and practitioners in the last decade. The body of literature on organizational politics is expanding but still the research remains distorted with respect to theory and research methodologies adopted. Despite a lot of empirical data conceptual vagueness still exist. Organizational politics is proved to be fact of life (Vigoda-Gadot, 2001a). Regardless of the widespread acceptance of presence of organizational politics proved by empirical research this aspect of life at workplace remained polemic.
Bureaucracy, Almost everyone deals with bureaucracy every day in one way or another and even if you do not personally deal with a bureaucratic official today your activities are being monitored by a bureaucratic system somewhere, but despite the fact, most people still have very little knowledge of how it works and its significance. To understand bureaucracy more it is a collection or group of official who engage in administrative and policy making duties.It is a system of government or business that has many complicated rules and ways of doing things. Bureaucracy can be considered to be a particular case of rationalization, or rationalization applied to human organization. . It’s difficult for students to engage into this topic, because they are actually living inside a bureaucracy.
Office politics. Kacmar, K.M., Bozeman, D.P., Carlson, D.S. & Anthony, W.P. (cited by Sowmya, K.R.,2011,50) offered the following definition “organizational politics involves actions by individuals, which are directed toward the goal of furthering their own self-interests without regard for the well-being of others or their organization” and this is supported by Hajji, M.A. (2014, 16) Who defined office politics as daily organization reality and practice through which an individual and/or group(s) in an organization put their personal interests and private agendas in advance of the organization they work for.
According to the organizational behavior theory of bureaucratic politics by James Q. Wilson, even basic elements of administration are complex for public organizations, such as the academic institutions in our research, cannot control their broadly defined missions, nor can they unilaterally control other critical elements of management – revenues, personnel, and the means of production. This also