By contrast, public subsidies are of little importance to British parties. In the United Kingdom there is ‘where a tradition of adversary politics combines with relatively limited state support for party organizations’ (Katz and Mair, 1995). There are public subsidies to that are allocated to party organizations but only rather modest payments to the parliamentary parties. The formation of the cartel party model has been limited because even though the British parties (the Labour Party and the Conservative Party) are clearly in control of the political decision-making process, the major parties ‘choose to rely on non-state sources of finance’ (Detterbeck, 2005). Within the Westminster system there is greater leeway given to the party in government when it comes to patronage potential that could have the party more reliant on state funds.
They are the people, the government and the media. Each of their roles will be explained and illustrated. We know that public interest is making the decision based on the conception that it is for the good of the people and in democratic societies, the government would usually make use of public interest to defend their agenda (O 'Flynn, 2010). However, when the public 's interest
On one hand, the party wants public opinion on social issues. On the other hand, the party is reluctant to decentralise some of its political powers. The CCP has not started political reforms on the same scale of its economic reforms. (Dickson, p. 96) It gives less freedoms on politics than that on economy. As limited political freedoms are given to the society, that create distinctions between local and central.
This has created a unique and prestigious image for its products. However, this strategy has failed in India due to the frugal attitude of the customers in India. The initial selling price in India has also been affected by several other reasons. Smartphones in India are mainly sold off-contract, without subsidies, and through a large number of small retailers. This results in the customers having to pay the full price at the time of purchase.
To deny them opportunity for lateral expansion is like saying that cinema artists are automatically debarred from transferring their talents to the television screen. Nationwide, they say, Hindi newspapers which account for the single largest bloc of circulation still reach only 35 per cent of the total Indian market. No individual newspaper among them can enjoy an outsized share of the readership that is even more fragmented in case of other languages, including English (Sarkar: 1997). On the technicalities of the issue, the relevance of the cross media curbs vis a vis technology also came to be questioned. “Significantly in the United States and some other countries, satellite television, satellite radio, cable, DTH and MMDS (Microwave Multipoint Distribution System) are outside the purview of the cross media restrictions.
A study by Farc and Sagarin (2009) also suggests that attitude strength can predict political behavior and moderates the attitude-candidate choice relationship. Public attitude and public attitude strength are thus often studied in the context of the media reporting and its agenda-setting and priming effects. Individuals do not widely observe the events surrounding the political landscape and only recognize few issues that may seem important at the given moment (Iyangar and Simon, 2000). Likewise, it was found that the greater prominence given by the media towards a certain issue creates a higher level of importance that people perceive the issue (McCombs and Estrada, 1996). Ladd (2006) also confirmed in his study that the more important people perceive an issue, the more it will have an impact on candidate preference.
Introduction The civil services system acts as an instrument for the government to implement and administers its public policies and programmes. The civil service system varies from country to country. The development achieved in many countries of the world has been due to the ability of their civil services to effectively translate the policies of their government into a concrete services. Civil service was the phrase first used in British administration in India .The system of open competitive examination was introduced in Great Britain in 1854 , the phrase was carried over and was applied to the officials serving the state in a professional capacity, except for those in the military and judicial services. Civil services in India History
Happer and Philo (2013) support this idea on the basis of their empirical studies that found that media limits the understanding of the audience and also removes the alternative solutions to political problems from the public. Media’s concentration on few topics decides how individuals in that society shape their opinions and actions in accordance as in a study conducted by Radoli (2011) found out that media owners frequently influence the editorial content which not only ends up in inciting the people in Kenya to violence but also disregard of the human rights. Thus newspapers do affect the public opinion and shape their behaviors. As newspapers are an important source of information so it’s important to note how they use agenda setting and framing in their content to influence the readers. Cissel (2012) supports this notion as her study concluded that media both mainstream and alternative uses agenda setting and frames
The significance of the budgetary process for a country and a country’s economy is visible in at least three aspects: first, decisions on the collection and spending of public funds are made in the course of budget preparation and adoption; second, in the course of this process the government defines the overall budget plan and plans the allocation of funds; and third, the allocation of funds ensures efficient governance (The Treasury of the New Zealand, 1996: 124). It is also important to consider its constitutional significance since, according to Article 104, par. 1 of the Croatian Constitution (hereinafter: the Constitution), the President of the Republic has the power of dissolution of the Croatian Parliament (hereinafter: the Parliament) if the Parliament fails to adopt a budget at the end of the budgetary process, within 120 days from proposing the budget . According to Bratić (2010: 136), since the budgetary process is carried out according to an “established pattern and strictly defined rules”, it is of utmost importance that all taxpayers “understand the budgetary procedure in its entirety, so that they could have a say in the allocation of budget
A study in Punjab state, India, shows there are several factors that lead to reduced corruption. One of the factors stated in this study is by applying directly at SUWIDHA Center (Single User-friendly Window Disposal Helpline for Applicants) and using the Single Window System. This system uses one roof and no middleman. Therefore, the applicants who have civil affairs can connect directly to officials of SUWIDHA and they are charged on base government rules. Furthermore, applicants will be able to know the status of an application via online, so they are less likely to give bribe to the official (Singla and Aggarwal, 2012).