According to Shrivastava (2) an EIA is prepared for proposed actions when it is not known whether the proposal would result in significant impacts on the environment-the documents that are prepared to determine whether a proposed project has the potential to cause significant impacts on the environment. EIA’s are prepared for projects that have the potential to result in significant impacts to the environment. The aim of Environmental Impact Assessment The aim of Environmental Impact Assessment is to protect the environment by the assessment of environmental implications of a decision to enact legislation, local planning as well as initiating development of projects (Wathern,2013:1).Thus, it is the process of identifying the consequences of
Kotter’s integrative model of organisational dynamics and Nadler and Tshman’s congruence model of organisations are open-system models which are look both internal and external factors for change (Hayes, 2007). Pettigrew and Whipp (1991) also highlight the importance of ‘Environmental assessment’, the continuous monitoring of both the internal and external environment of the organisation through open learning systems, in their five central interrelated factors for successfully managing strategic
- Oral presentations from vendors were scheduled for the following Friday (in one week). - There was one serious competing vendor who had strong support from the technically oriented working committee members. - The decision criteria upon which the working committee would base the vendor decision were (in order): price, approach, methodology, experience, and
The third conception of IS strategy is organization centric , which bridges the two extremes of business driven logic and IS function logic in earlier conceptions . Conceptualizing IS strategy as a shared role between the business and IS function , viewing it as an organizational perspective which covers all three subdomains (ie . what, how and who) of the management strategy of information systems proposed by Earl (1989) and utilize IS for strategic goals (Armstrong and Sambamurthy 1999; Preston and Karahanna 2009b). Following an organizational perspective approach suggests that IS strategy could be both emergent and deliberate strategies , hence avoiding the contradiction (Galliers 2004) . It is highly likely that with emergence of new technologies and a shared view between IS and business executives, it could reflect the social dimension of IS strategic alignment (Reich and Benbasat 1996, 2000) and shape the business strategy of the organization (Galliers 1995).
The purpose of TRA is to predict and understand motivational influences on behaviour that is under the individual’s volitional control and identify how and where to target strategies for changing behaviour as well as to explain vertiually any human behaviour. (Levine et. al, 1996, & 1997) The TRA is consisted of two variables: attitude and subjective norm. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) stated that the level of specificity, stability of time and level of volitional control are the three boundaries that influence the enforcement level between intention and behaviour (Madden et. al.,1992).
Screening to determine which projects or developments require a full or partial impact assessment study; b. Scoping to identify which potential impacts are relevant to assess (based on legislative requirements, international conventions, expert knowledge and public involvement), to identify alternative solutions that avoid, mitigate or compensate adverse impacts on biodiversity (including the option of not proceeding with the development, finding alternative designs or sites which avoid the impacts, incorporating safeguards in the design of the project, or providing compensation for adverse impacts), and finally to derive terms of reference for the impact assessment; a. Assessment and evaluation of impacts and development of alternatives, to predict and identify the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development including the detailed elaboration of alternatives; b. Reporting the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or EIA report, including an environmental management plan (EMP), and a non-technical summary for the general audience. c. Review of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), based on the terms of reference (scoping) and public (including authority)
Decision trees are useful to evaluate alternative capacity choices on the basis of costs and benefits. It is especially applicable to long term capacity planning of facility expansion. The three step approach to decision tree analysis is shown by figure
Third, program evaluation must be able to consider political and environmental context. It is in this particular characteristic that the authors aver the importance of stakeholders: the evaluator, the one to commission the evaluation; and other organizations or individuals that have significant stakes in the program. On the other hand, the results that evaluations aim for should be timely and meaningful especially to decision makers as this will determine the fate of the program. (Rossi et al.,:2004) Finally, program evaluation seeks to improve social conditions by informing social action. Findings from assessments should always serve as a basis for decisions for actions or non-actions towards the program.
Each system is influenced by different public problems and thus requires different types of public policy (Geurts, 2012). The main process of policy making according to Cochran & Malone (1995) consists of four phases: initiation, formulation, implementation and evaluation. The process starts by identifying the problem, formulating a solution, identifying different alternatives, selecting from those alternatives on the basis of their impact and laying them
Genting Company offer 14 days of annual leave per year for any employees. Employees can apply annual leave at any time within a year as long as they apply at least one month in advance by filling form and waiting to be approved. Employees may forfeit their annual leaves if they didn’t apply within a year. III. Discounted-Food (Non-Statutory