Public Participation Principles

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Practice Principles & Methods of Public Participation The international best practice principle of public participation in EIA shown below has been divided into three tiers: Basic Principles, Operating Principles and Developing Guidelines. The basic principles have involved the main stages of the EIA process from screening and scoping to decision-making. The operating principles are applied to the basic principles to enable their operation in different stages (Andre et al., 2006). Basic Principles Operating Principles Developing Guidelines • Adapted to the context • Informative and proactive • Adaptive and communicative • Inclusive and equitable • Educative • Cooperative • Imputable • Initiated early and sustained • Well planned…show more content…
Public participation encompasses a group of procedures designed to consult, involve, and inform the public to allow those affected by a decision to have an input into that decision (Smith, 1983). Integration of methods optimizes the achievement of the objectives of both participants and decision-makers. This was stressed in the agency’s own guidance (Environmental Agency, 1998). A consideration of the literature reveals the existence of a variety of methods and guidelines that might come under the public participation categorization, ranging from those that elicit input in the form of opinion to those that elicit judgments and decision from which actual policy might be derived (Rowe G & Frewer L, 2000). A List of 8 Most Formalized Public Participation Methods Participation methods Natural of participants Time Scale/Duration Characteristics Referenda potential all members of national or local population; realistically, a significant proportion of these Vote cast at single point in time vote is usually choice of one of two opinions. All participants have equal influence. Final outcome is binding Public hearing/inquiries Interested citizen, limited in number by size of venue. True participants are experts and politicians making presentations May last many weeks/ months. Even years. Usually held during weekdays Entails presentation…show more content…
At this stage, the federal authorities need to determine whether their proposed action will have a significant environmental impact or not (Moorman J.L and Z. Ge, 2006). Upon authority’s fixed decision, an environmental impact report is needed to prepare for the proposed action. In this stage, the announcement of the intention does not positively request public comment, but means the authority provides appropriate contact information for future contacting, and allows the interested public to express their views on the institution (Heather N and Stevenson,

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