Probably the most famous term in this area is participatory budgeting. In participatory budgeting, a special emphasis is put on the vertical communication channel between a superior and his subordinate(s). The subordinate who is affected by the budget actively participates in the budget creation process. This method is often used by superiors to elicit private information from the subordinates, which they normally would not share with the superior. When this information is shared, it can benefit the subordinate but also the whole organization (Nouri & Parker, 1998).
What is public participation. It is the deliberate process through which interested or affected citizens, civil society organisations and government actors are involved in policy making before a political decision is taken. It is the process through which stakeholders input and shares control over development initiatives decisions and resources and resources which affect them. it has been said to move beyond the traditional methods of public consultations by creating opportunities for the open exchange of ideas, transparency,mutual learning and informed and representative decision making. THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK Under the constitution People may exercise their sovereign power their sovereign powers directly or through their democratically elected representatives.
In an ideal world the budget process of any country should be transparent, there should accountability and also some degree of citizen participation in the budget process. This is important for a number of reasons, which includes that when there is budget transparency this gives the oversight institutions such as the auditors the right information in order to strengthen their role and power to do check and balances. With wrong or limited information it leads to these oversight institutions not giving out the right kind of information as their assessment which will not be a true reflection of the situation. The purpose of this paper is to advocate for more budget transparency, accountability and participation in Botswana’s budget process. When
Planning programming and budgeting, zero-based budgeting and target-based budgeting are variations of performance budgeting. These formats are projected to improve the policy decision-making situation and rational analysis. Budget officials would focus on the major policy instead of insignificant and time-consuming issues using these formats. The development PPB experienced some success and failure. It is an attempt for government to institutionalize analysis into the public budgeting process.
Well-managed organizations make budgeting an integral part of the formulation and execution of their strategy. In Chapter I. we defined a budget as a quantitative expression of a plan of action. Sometimes plans are informal, perhaps even unwritten, and informal plans sometimes work
• Conclusions Contrary to national legislation and international best practices, the authorities do not comply with the budget calendar, the most important planning documents (laws state budget and MTBF) systematically are being approved late. Moreover, the public does not participate in the budget process, although the Government is obliged to involve citizens in the process. Currently, public authorities are focused more on informing and very little communication with the public. To fully benefit from the participation of citizens is necessary that the institutions involved in the budget process to formulate policies on public consultations, to determine exactly agenda and objectives for public consultation and publish reports on public input in the process. Finally, ignoring the opinion of civil society in defining the priorities of fiscal policy is not auspicious for efficient use of public money and respecting citizens'
Further, it should be noted that the economic system allocates limited resources to competing individuals and groups. This necessitates the government’s fiscal and monetary processes to stimulate or restrict the demand for goods and services. Any economic developments can influence public administration. Administrators and managers need to know about economic matters and implications of such decisions on the economy. In 1995, the South African government introduced Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR), a macro-economic strategy.
The community may have false expectations when Participatory Rural Appraisal is done especially when then know there will be financial support. Community members may think money will be available to everybody after Participatory Rural Appraisal is accomplished (Hilary and Jannice, 1994). 2. Miracle solutions would not be achieved through Participatory Rural Appraisal, the fact that problems and solutions are identified by both the community and the expert it does not guarantee that actions and results will be instantly
This is a clear representation of what people are willing to do to others to benefit themselves to the full extent. 10. No I do not think it is ethical for public money to be used to bail out private intuitions in financial difficulties. The governments money was earned by the citizens of the country and is given to the government to develop the country through infrastructure and sustainability of the country. The tax payers money is not given to the government to fund business that have made incorrect decisions or unethical issues which have led to a financial crisis.
One of the approaches is the traditional incremental budget and the other one is the zero based budgeting. In the first case just as the name states, the budgetary allocation is done as an increment from the previous period. The traditional incremental budget entails that a department within a firm has access to as much resources as it can spend (Warrick & Zawacki, 1984, p.277). That is to say if a department uses all the financial resources allocated to it, it can apply for more finances to take care of other operations which could otherwise not have been budgeted for. Similarly, if a department realizes that it has some unused resources within a stipulated period, then the managers can look for ways of spending the resources until the accounts read zero.