Public Relations Literature Review

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This chapter will discuss literature related to the strategic management and public relations, the Two-Way Symmetrical Model in the Excellent Theory of public relations, the emergence of new roles of public relations as well as analyzing and discussing the integrated marketing communication approach that could be applied by public relations practitioners to be effective and remain relevant in government organizations as well as industries.
The Excellence Study
There are many studies that have been conducted over the years to identify and justify the need to put public relations in strategic management process of an organization. Many evidences have unearthed the needs (Grunig & Hunt, 1984; Cutlip, Center & Broom, 1994; Drobis, 1997-1998),
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Pearce and Robinson (2000) defined strategic management as the set of decisions and actions that result in the formulation and implementation of plans to achieve a company’s objectives.
Public relations is defined as the management function that established and maintains mutually beneficial relationship between an organization and publics or whom its success or failure depends (Cutlip, Centre & Broom, 1994). However, there are still those who see public relations as a technician job of communication that includes having strategic importance such as management consultancy, scanning and analyzing environment (Moss and Warnaby, 1999).
Dozier and Grunig (1992) have pointed out that at some point in their history, most organizations probably develop their public relations strategically, namely with the presence of a strategic public provides the motivation for initiating public relations programs. However, as time goes by, the original objectives of the programs are being neglected and communication programs are being carried out without considering the public strategic segmentation. This has made the practice of public relations ineffective and does not contribute in helping organization to adapt to dynamic
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There are ongoing awareness among professional public relations practitioners on the importance of serving the interest of people affected by organizations, if they want to serve the interest of organizations that employ them (Grunig, 2001). But at the same time, many of them still doing the communication technician jobs such as publicity, press releases etc. Grunig, Grunig and Dozier (2002) suggested that public relations practitioners to begin contribute to strategic management by scanning the environment to identify the strategic publics that have an impact on an organization’s capacity to accomplish its
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