If root canal treatment is selected as a routine procedure, most would be unnecessary as the majority of teeth with PCO will never suffer pulpal necrosis and periapical disease. Oginni et al recommended that root canal treatment should be initiated in teeth with tenderness to percussion, PAI scores >3 (The PAI quantifies periapical inflammation/disease and scores 2–5 represent disease) and a negative response to sensibility testing(4). However, elective or intentional root canal procedure can be considered in case of aesthetic concerns or when tooth is unresponsive to vital bleaching
Hemisection is one of the treatment options for preserving remaining part of molar having sound periodontium. The prognosis for hemisection is similar to routine endodontic procedures provided that case selection has been performed correctly and the restoration is of an acceptable design relative to the occlusal and periodontal needs of the patient as it was in this case. Thus, present case report demonstrates the successful management of hemisection of 36 with occlusal rehabilitation with fixed partial
Endodontic therapy involves treating vital and necrotic dental pulps so that patients can retain their natural teeth in function and esthetics. A successful endodontic therapy depends on many factors,among which the most important step is canal preparation as it determines the efficacy of all subsequent procedures . Cleaning pertains to the sufficient removal of debris, bacteria and smear layer from the root canal.3 Debris is defined as dentin chips and residual vital or necrotic pulp tissue attached to the root canal wall. The smear layer is a surface film approximately 1 to 2 μm of dentin particles, residual pulp tissue, and bacterial components that remain on the root canal wall after mechanical instrumentation.3 Therefore proper cleaning is essential in order to provide an adequate seal and to prevent failure.4 The goal
In 80 % of orthodontic patients, this occurs predominantly in the canine region  and is mainly treated by a symmetric extraction of the first or second premolars in all four quadrants . Additional indications are a distinct sagittal overbite due to severe proclination of the upper incisors, which can be reduced by the space gained after premolar extraction , as well as a severe open bite situation.The relative contraindications of extraction treatment are considered to be deep bite, horizontal growth type as well as a concave lip profile and a prominence of the nose. This consensus is founded on the general belief that loss of vertical dimension and a negative impact on facial profile have to be expected after premolar extractions
As an emergency treatment if the pulp is not involved, the fracture should be stabilized. Once the final treatment is decided upon, the options may range from removal of the fractured segment, removal of the fractured segment along with gingivectomy or osteotomy, removal of the fractured segment along with orthodontic extrusion, decoronation (if implant will be placed later in order to preserve alveolar bone, or extraction. These options will vary depending on the amount of fractured root and the clinical situation. If the pulp is involved, the pulp’s vitality should be preserved especially if the tooth has an open apex. The same treatment options are available as the previous situation, however, pulp therapy must be performed.
Craniotomy is the most common type of operation to eliminate a meningioma. A neurosurgeon will access and eradicate the tumor, or as much of the tumor as possible without menace of severe damage to the brain. In some cases radiation therapy may possibly be used post-surgery to emit remaining tumor in precise areas of the brain. There are two different types are radiation therapy used to treat meningioma, external beam radiation and stereotactic radiosurgery. When all previous treatments are unsuccessful immunotherapy or chemotherapy could be considered for malignant tumors, and immunotherapy may be measured for benign
The experiment was performed at room temperature, two methods of observations are done on High Silica Phenolic liner and the experiments are carried out as per specifications mentioned below: Technical parameters MACHINE METHOD ENERGY (kV) CURRENT(mA) TIME (min) FILM SFD Pantak(450kV) Normal 75 2.7 2 T200 2m Pantak(450kV) Tangential 85 2.7 2 T200 2m SFD: Source to Film Distance Normal Radiography schematic Block diagram Normal Radiography experimental setup Results and Discussions Normal Radiograph of High Silica Phenolic liner From the Radiograph, no defects are observed in normal method. As the defects are not in parallel to the direction of X-ray beam travel and therefore not detected by this method. Hence Tangential Radiography is conducted.
Initially the concentration of the polymer was set at 15wt%, but the viscosity was very high which made the electrospinning voltage to be very high at 25KV. Then the concentration of the polymer solution was reduced to 9wt% then to 7.4wt%, the viscosity of the polymer solution was made optimum and approximately 0.25 gm of chlorides of iron, manganese and tin were then added to the polymer solution. The electrospinning voltage reduced accordingly with respect to the concentration of the solution. Fig. 1: Graph depicting polymer solution wt% vs electrospinning
The results showed that approaching failure was not seen even the shear stress was beyond 140kPa for both remoulded peat and remoulded peat fibre and the tests had to be stopped due to over axial compression on the peat samples. The samples however showed gradual transition from a linear elastic to a linear strain-hardening stress–strain response up to 5% for both remoulded peat and remoulded peat fibre specimens (Hendry, 2011). Michalowski & Cermak (2002) had observed this behaviour which similar in the fibre-reinforced sand triaxial tests and believed that the increasing reinforcement perpendicular to the major principal stress direction could be the
MATAG inflorescence were collected from Department of Agriculture Terengganu’s farm. The samples were stored in ice-box to maintain its freshness prior to culture. B. Optimization of Sterilization Procedure The rachillae bearing inflorescence were cut off from the spadices and then were washed under run-ning tap water for 15 to 20 minutes to remove dirt and debris. The male inflorescence was isolated from rachillae and subjected to three different method of sterilization (as described in Table 1). C. Media Compositions and Growth Conditions The basal media used for this experiment were Y3 media (Eeuwens, 1976).