(Wikipedia) During the 16th century, many people believed that witchcraft, rather than the workings of God's will, offered better reason of sudden and unexpected bad fortune, such as the death of a child, bad harvests, or the death of cows and bulls. Witch-hunting became something that you constantly think about in some parts of the country. In 1736 Parliament passed an Act undoing the laws against witchcraft but charged fines on people who claimed to be able to use magical powers. Secondly, When witchcraft was proven to be a crime? The witchcraft Act was a law passed by the group of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1735 which made it a crime for a person to say that any human being had magical powers or was guilty of practising witchcraft.
Mary was afraid of Abigail Williams and didn’t tell the truth fearing that Abigail would hurt her. While, she developed as a character and made better choices for herself. Acts 3 and 4 she attempted to help John try to accuse Abigail Williams of lying about witchcraft in the court. “I-I promise you, Mr.Danforth, I only thought I saw them but I did not’.”(Miller 100). At that point in time Mary Warren and John Proctor both tried to prove Abigail Williams and the other girls of faking it until, act 4 when she backstabbed John Proctor and made her own claim that John Proctor was satan.”You’re the devil’s man.” (Miller 110).
The consequences of Hammurabi’s law code can be pretty terrifying because most of the punishment involved death. Hammurabi’s law code also comprise of, “If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him.” The Amorite king made it explicit that married couples not having intercourse also means to file divorce papers. Hammurabi does not accept the fact that a married couple is a married couple, unless they have intercourse. The punishment of this action is very light compared to most of his usual consequences. Hammurabi showed no mercy under his firmly set law codes.
Two notable examples of this were presented in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible. Both of these works feature intimidation from locals as a way of gaining power over the accused. For instance, Justine from Frankenstein was innocent of murdering Victor’s brother William. Yet, she was found guilty by the court. Her reason why was given after the trial.
Witchcraft was second among the hierarchy of crimes which was above blasphemy, murder and poisoning in the Puritan Code of 1641. Since England had their own witch hunts, it was said that the anxiety spread to New England mainly because of a pamphleteer Cotton Mather. It started early 1692 when the daughter and niece of Salem local minister, Samuel Parris had strange violent convulsions and loud outbursts. The only local doctor of the village which only could read but not write, then concluded that the girls were bewitched. There were three primary “suspected” witches, the minister’s slave Tituba, Sarah Good who was a beggar, and Sarah Osborne, a widower.
Over 150 men and women were accused and arrested for witchcraft and some were executed.10 The turning point for the Salem Witch Trials was the mass execution that took place on Sept. 22, 1962.11 (pg81-113) The Puritans, the court and even the Reverend were realizing that they made a mistake. After almost a year of terror, the trials were over. Over twenty innocent lives were lost. Those who were not the same as everyone else were given the title of a witch. Instead of being accepted as individuals, they were ousted, persecuted, and some executed.
The Salem witch trials were a time period when any individual could be accused of witchcraft for numerous reasons. In The Crucible, Arthur Miller focuses on the deviation of the trials and how the town’s most religious and honest members of the community are tried with witchcraft. John Proctor, the town’s most honest man, is accused of being a witch and must decide if he should confess or not. Proctor’s confession will stop the town from rebelling and uphold the reputations of Deputy Governor Danforth and Reverend Parris. Hale also wishes for Proctor’s confession so he does not have to feel responsible if Proctor were to be hanged for his witchcraft accusations.
Neither he nor his wife would admit to his lechery in the aforementioned questioning, their reputation would be destroyed, even if it meant that the truth was shown. In Act Two, John has an outburst at his wife’s arrest, seeing as it would deface his family name saying to the court officials, “God will not let you wash your hands of this!”(204). Proctor blamed the court for his family legacy being ruined. In the last scene of the play, Proctor perfectly sums up the importance of the legacy behind the name. Proctor cries out, “I have given you my soul; leave me my name!” (240).
The first law under effect, has closed Boston Harbor to all shipping until we pay back for their tea that we dumped and show them proper respect. First of all, we will not show the British any further respect for they have no respect for us. But the problem for us is how will be be able to proceed our businesses and trading when Boston Harbor is closed. The second law now puts Massachusetts in complete British authority, in which now our governors are appointed by King George III. With this law in effect, it is considered a violation for us to hold town meetings without the governor’s permission.
It all started with Abigail and Betty lying to stay out of trouble. Then, Tituba and the girls accused innocent people of witchcraft because they could. Finally, John Proctor takes pride in his faith and honor and is hanged for not signing his name to a lie. Every decision made in Salem after the witch hunts started depended on truth versus lies because if they told the truth, they would die and if the lied they would live. This essay proves the development of the theme truth versus lies in the crucible by stating three major events in the play where truth versus lies depends on what the results are.