Push-Pull Theory

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2.3.2.1 Push-Pull Theory
Research on the outdoor recreation area by scholars found out that motivations is based on the terms of push and pull factors (e.g Jorgensen, 2002; Dann, 1977; Yuan & McDonald, 1990). As Uysal and Hagan (1993) indicated, push factor is motivation factors that influence people to visit somewhere and by doing it, individuals can get satisfaction. That is, according to Pearce and Caltabiano (1983), a motivation or a created desire to go to other place. More earlier research by Iso-Ahola (1982,1989) gave two fundamental dimensions of motivation based on leisure and tourism behaviour, they are escaping and seeking. Also he mentioned that those two dimensions can influence the leisure and tourism behaviour, it is the reason
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Fakeye and Crompton (1991) suggest six pull factors, they are social opportunities; natural and cultural amenities; bars and evening entertainment; physical amenities and recreation activities; infrastructure, foods, and friendly people; natural and cultural amenities. The study that giving by Fakeye and Crompton (1991) was based on a sample of people visit to a renamed winter place called Texas, and they used 32 attribute items. Hence, Hu and Ritchie (1993) used other relative 16 attribute items, and found the change on across group and their purpose for travel as well as their purpose of travel with family members. In addition, Kim et al (2000) gave 4 destination attributes, they are physical environment; entertainment; high profiles entertainment opportunities; infrastructure. Turnbull and Uysal (1995) also explored six pull factors, but they are different from Fakeye and Crompton’s research. The six pull factors are outdoor resources; city enclave; comfort-relaxation; heritage/ culture; beach resort; rural and inexpensive. The research of those six pull factors is focused on visitors who…show more content…
Hence, from Ahlers’ research (2006), print media cannot attract young readers because print media get young people losing interest and also the print media unwatched of young people’s needs. Besides, the publishers under this trend agreed the research (Graybeal, 2008 and Kohl, 2008). In addition, the people who less than 40 years old are paying more attention to the online social network services (e.g. Ahlers, 2006 and Nguyen and Western, 2007). According to Zhou et al (2011), the motivations of using social media have three main factors: functional, such as shopping, learning things, making money, creating things, and study; experiential means entertainment, escaping from actual world, exploration new things, playing games; social motives for example socializing with others. Also they found that the motivations differences on demographics. Female users prefer shopping, exploring and researching on the Internet while male prefer making money

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