Principle Of Classical Conditioning

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https://www.paperr1. The classical conditioning There are two different types of conditioning. The first one is called “classical conditioning”. Classical conditioning refers to associative learning. Basically it is “making a new association between events in the environment”. In simple psychologist terms: two impulses, also called stimuli, get connected to produce a new learned response. This could occur with a person or an animal. The theory is based on Pavlov’s experiment. Pavlov’s dogs - his experiment His basic assumption was that there are some processes which dogs do not have to learn. For example when dog’s get fed they immediately start to salivate. It is comparable with a reflex because there is no learning required. In technical…show more content…
For learning to associate two stimuli there shouldn’t be too much time in between otherwise there will be no association made. 2. The operant conditioning The operant conditioning differs from the classical conditioning because this theory focuses on our behavior and its consequences. Basically how the consequences actually influence our behavior. It is a kind of a circuit. So the association is made between our behavior and the consequences. This method of learning is based on a principle with reinforcement and punishment The theory is based on two assumptions: On the one hand it is more likely that a behavior is shown again when it is followed by reinforcement. On the other hand it is less likely that a behavior is shown again when it is followed by punishment. 2 Reinforcement Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. 2.1 positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement: This occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a rewarding stimulus, increasing the frequency of that behavior. For example, parents rewarding a child’s excellent grades with candy or some other…show more content…
So, the teacher is taking away something unpleasant to increase behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a loud noise continuously sounded inside the cage until the rat did what Skinner wanted him to do. When he did, the noise stopped, so the unpleasant noise was taken away. In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases. 3 punishment You need to distinguish between negative reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement should increase a behavior and punishment decreases the unfavorable behavior. 3.1 positive punishment Positive punishment is used to decrease a behavior and is presenting something unpleasant after the behavior. In an experiment, the subject received a slight electric shock when they got an answer wrong. 3.2 Negative Verstärkung Negative punishment is also used to decrease a behavior and is removing something pleasant after the behavior. An employee is habitually late for work so begins losing the privilege of listening to music while working. The behavior will decrease because of losing a privilege. A child doesn’t put his bike away so the parents lock it up for a certain time. The parents took away something pleasant to decrease behavior.

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