Mastectomy and lumpectomy are local therapies for breast cancer because it targets the area of the tumor compared to systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy). Figure 3: Lumpectomy in the right breast in a 50 years old Nigerian woman The decision to carry out a mastectomy depends on a number of factors; breast size, number of
A woman is said to be the light bulb in a family but what happens if she is unable to fulfill her roles and duties as a mother? Can we still say that a family stays happy when there is a lack of mother figure? One of the global health issues that mainly attacks women today is cervical cancer, a type of cancer that occurs in the cervix (a female reproductive organ that connects the lower part of a woman’s uterus to her vagina). Experts said that about 250, 000 women around the globe die of cervical cancer a year caused by the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) which infects nearly 80% sexually active women. HPV infection commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths (warts) on the different parts of the body.
For this literature review the following are some of the resources that were used to obtain the sough out information: The American Journal for Clinical Medicine and Depression Research and Treatment journal. This research handled the topic of postpartum depression or depression in women after giving birth. The key words used were the following: postpartum, depression, breastfeeding, effects of postpartum depression. 10 journal articles were found as a result of that method. The following is a summary of what was within some of those articles.
Jacquelyn C. Campbell defines intimate partner violence as “physical or sexual assault, or both,” of a spouse or sexually intimate partner. She speaks about how damaging this type of violence can be to women. Campbell provided information from past studies to explain why interventions and assessments should be increased in health-care settings to identify more of these situations. The author looked at information from the past decade and used only the surveys that were in English. She carefully reviewed sample-size and population based data.
In addition, the differences between the genetics of white and African American females found its way to play a part in such disparities (Iqbal, et al, 2015.) It is shown that despite the access to an equal health care, African American females get breast cancer screening, follow-up care, treatments at different standards comparing to white females (Freedman, et al,
Colon-Lopez and colleagues manuscript describes a sustainable partnership with Taller Salud, Inc. related to the creation of a culturally appropriate breast and cervical cancer intervention for women. The study team used lay health workers to maintain cultural awareness for intervention implementation. The last paper by XXX and colleagues, centers on XXX. The study
At least part of its increased popularity may be attributable to an array of research competed by Champion, 1984 and her development of an instrument (and subsequent others) to measure HBM concepts in relation to breast cancer screening: breast self-examination Champion & Miller, 1992 and mammography Champion, 1999. Initially developed in the 1950s by social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Service, HBM has since evolved gradually in response to practical programmatic concerns Becker, 1974; Janz & Becker, 1984;Kirscht, 19974; & Rosenstock 1974. The key concepts of HBM include perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self efficacy added by Bandura in 1977.The HBM has been used in several studies as a theoretical framework to study BSE another breast cancer detection behaviors Barron, Houfek, & Foxall, 1997; Champion, 1984;1999; Hoeman & Ku, 1996. It has also been utilized to explore culturally relevant differences associated with screening behaviors Cohen & Azaiza, 2005. Because of its long record of use in several studies exploring health behaviors in general, and cancer screening behaviors, specifically, this model served as the ideal theoretical foundation on which the present study was based (Kendara, 2011).
4.1 Introduction The focus of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers bereaved by Second Trimester Miscarriage most specifically focusing on their experiences of hospital care. The key findings from the study are presented in Chapter four, thematic analysis (Attride-Sterling, 2001) was employed to analysis the data and thematic networks were designed to represent the two global themes of clinical care needs and relational and social experiences of miscarriage which emerged from the data. The first section of the chapter outlines a brief description of the overall recruitment and response rate, and the demographic/clinical information related to the mothers who participated in the study. This is followed by a presentation
In an article by Richard Shweder titled "What about 'Female Genital Mutilation '? and Why Understanding Culture Matters in the First Place", the author explores female circumcision and its relation to culture (Shweder, pg.209). While the topic of this article is female circumcision, the author also explores the reasoning behind why it is referred to as female genital mutilation in some cultures (Shweder, pg.209). In this article, the author focuses on the thoughts that cultures who practice female circumcision have about the practice, therefore the theory used is interpretivism. (Shweder, pg.212).
INTRODUCTION The worldwide rate of cervical cancer has come down to two-fifth of what it was 50 years ago, mainly due to effective Pap smear screening1. However, 75% of the new cases are reported to occur in the developing countries, mainly due to ineffective screening programmes or lack of awareness. It is the most common neoplasm among Indian women and accounts for 20–50% of all cancers in India and 80–85% of female genital cancers in India2. India has significant socio-demographic risk factors and unhealthy clinical findings for cervical carcinoma. With modern methods of cervical screening like liquid cytology, the effectiveness of Pap smear, a screening modality of lower sensitivity, is now in question.
The PICOT stands for population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and time. This format helps researchers to answer specific clinical questions that are related to particular scenarios. These scenarios may include intervention, etiology, diagnosis, prevention, prognosis, and meaning. Furthermore, two methods are commonly used in nursing research: quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method research usually measures something, such as percentage of people with a particular disease in a community, whereas qualitative method research can seem imprecise (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2015).