4. CONCEPT 4-CONFIDENTIALITY IN NURSING PRACTICE Confidentiality according to Wes Janison, WPI Interdisciplinary and Global study division is an explicit or implied guarantee by a researcher to a respondent in a social science whereby the respondent confident that any information provided to the researcher cannot be attributed back to that respondent. Thus, confidentiality is an active attempt by researcher to remove any trace of respondent identities from the records. PERSONAL CONTEXT: Confidentiality is a guarantee given to a respondent by a researcher promising not to disclose the information to anyone. The information may be verbal or non verbal depending on how the respondent wants to respond to that research.
If contribution in research does involve individuality to the chance of harm, it is essential that they realize the nature of that harm when giving their permission. Social policy research frequently centre on people and social groups who are in danger, underprivileged and comparatively vulnerable and hence essential to pay particular consideration to research participants’ human rights in the plan, behaviour and distribution of research. It is significant to make sure wherever probable that all individuals in social policy research, in spite of of their status, are aware of and consent to the consequences of being involved in a research. Researchers must be aware at all times that an obligation to the advancement of awareness does not give the right to them to overrule the human rights of
This can be more difficult than it sounds, because it can be difficult to anticipate how participants will react to a study. It is usually easy to recognize when someone’s physical safety is in jeopardy, but it is complicated to recognize when a person’s emotional well-being is at risk. Researchers have an obligation to minimize any procedures that have the potential to cause harm to your participants. In general, avoid designs in which participants could be humiliated, embarrassed, scared, anxious, stressed, saddened, or discouraged. The participants’ physical and mental state should be the same as when they arrived for your experiment then by the end your experiment.
The first epistemological concern is relating between the researcher and participants within the research and about the effect on connection between values and facts. The phenomena and topic of women’s self esteem and body image being researched is positioned as objective observation. Researcher is viewed as objective, research and investigation should not be affected by interpretation and behaviour of researcher. Recognise that researcher can make their own assumptions and biases, but without affecting and interpreting participants, rather in a possible non judgemental and neutral approach. The second set of epistemological issue of these relates to the fact that knowledge is best acquired, a inductive process through observing patterns and collect evidence and knowledge in the real society, in order to built up theories and make a conclusion.
Plagiarizing someone’s work shows incompetence and wickedness of the research project together with its researcher. • Validity – In a research project, all the evidence and data gathered must be valid. The validity of a research project represents how truthful, reasonable, and useful the research is. • Power – This ethical issue conveys the power or expertise and knowledge in conducting a research. Having the title “researcher” means that one has an understanding and higher knowledge in performing their research project.
EXPLANATION Confidentiality plays an important role in the psychology field. The confidential bond between these mental health professionals and their clients represents an important professional obligation and create a secure relationship foundation within the helping profession. The concept of confidentiality emphasize that everyone has a right to privacy. Bok (1983) stated that confidentiality is based on four principles, which are respect for autonomy, respect, pledge of silence and utility. Respect for autonomy means that psychologists believe that client has the ability to make correct decisions.
According to The Neglected 95%, a Challenge to Psychology's Philosophy of Science, Haeffel and colleagues, "they claimed that I suffer from a "fundamental misunderstanding about basic research" and that my position is "akin to asking why medical research continues to focus on growing stem cells when there are more daunting problems such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease" (p. 570)." (The Neglected) Arnett's claims that Haeffel's response to his claim that basic processes research value is wrong and the relation between basic research and human problems is not very clear even to a research psychologist. I have
Research never occurs as an accident, nor carried out in a vacuum, but always in a professional and social environment that can occasionally impede on one’s level of values in a context where productivity, fame, and competition have become more important. The advent of the Internet has changed the ways information is gathered. The wealth of resources to which students, professionals and researchers can refer to on the Internet and the many ways to carry out research works with less effort can also be tainted with plagiarism. Thus, research must be carried out in respect of the practices and ethical principles appropriate to each discipline. Being aware of the risks of the enormous field of information on the Internet, plagiarism must remain a permanent concern of ethical research for honest and competent
3.2 Definitions and Purpose of Research Hussey and Hussey (2003) concluded that in spite of the significance of research activity, there is no agreed definition in the current literature on how the term should be defined Research stands on the intent to create new knowledge, and any attempt to increase the sum of what is known, usually referred to as ‘a body of knowledge’. According to Williams (2007), research is sometimes erroneously regarded as the gathering information, documenting of facts, and rummaging through previously collected data for information. Contrary to this opinion, research is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to understand a phenomenon (Leedy & Omrod, 2005). Therefore, the researcher needs to be able to argue convincingly that new knowledge that is valuable has been added to the body of knowledge ( Sekaran , 2003). However, according to Sekaran (2003) research can be defined as, “an organized, systemic, data- based, critical, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or solutions to
Therefore, the researcher uses it as the framework for the research methodology. Based on this framework, in order to make sure that the findings are accurate, a deductive approach is carried out. This implies the existing theories are utilized to help deduce solutions to the current problems or the research gaps identified in the literature review. Therefore, the focus of the research is not about proposing or forming new theories, but to extract the required solutions by either extending the current knowledge corpus to meet the objectives of the research or by refining the same through re- structuring the existing details to make it more suitable for the current research aim. In order to achieve this, a deductive approach will lead to more accurate findings than presenting new theories (Anderson, 2009).