This paper will also reflect the difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods, as well as compare them. It will define appropriate academic research, define quantitative research and qualitative research and explain how they differ and relate to the human service field and the scientific method. Quantitative research is “the use of sampling techniques (such as consumer surveys)
Qualitative research is good if researcher wants to explain based on a research which has resulted in comprehensive explanation. This research method enables you to understand the problem, cause and somehow solutions in depth. An advantage we have for qualitative research is its flexibility as its data collection technique varies and one can make the use of best with reference to research topic. For qualitative research you always get a room to play and get work done according to need so as a plus point we don’t need control group in this research. Qualitative can be done in focused area where it becomes less time taking and cost efficient.
a) Quantitative Method: In this research, the method involves gathering data for it to be quantified and therefore be placed under statistical treatment to provide support to the topic under study. There are three historical trends concerning quantitative research method that is research design, measurement and test process and statistical analysis. In this method, the research still includes a collection of data which is done
Qualitative data on the other hand, provides data that the researcher must draw results from using inductive reasoning. Lastly and perhaps most importantly, the two research methods differ in terms of what they are designed to do. Qualitative research aims to explain how and why certain things happen. Because quantitative research has no way of showing clear cut causality, it can be said that quantitative research is intended to be conclusive. Putting it in a simpler analogy, quantitative research would do measurements hundreds of rooms to figure out that a room’s brightness level correlates highly with the position of its light switch, whereas a qualitative research makes the observation that flicking the switch makes the room
This information may not be possible to capture in a rightful way using surveys and statistics (Corbin and Strauss, 1998: 11), thus a qualitative method is more suitable than quantitative. As argued by Corbin and Strauss (1998:11), qualitative research methodology is useful when obtaining an understanding of the nature of integration and individual experiences, since this enables the researcher to interpret the thoughts and feelings within the given context. Within qualitative research, focus is directed towards how the respondents describe their social reality (Bryman, 2012: 341), which is what this study seeks to understand in order to answer the research question. Further, another reason behind why quantitative data will not be used in this study is related to the risk that the respondents and the researcher might put themselves in, by collecting data on sensitive and sometimes controversial topics. Furthermore, using qualitative data is also suitable in order to fill the existing research gap on this specific topic.
Overview of Qualitative Research Qualitative Research is mainly about exploratory research. It is used to gain an in-depth understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. Qualitative research is also used to discover the patterns of thought and opinions, and explore deeper into the problem. Qualitative data collection methods are vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common methods include focus group, individual interviews, and participation/observations.
According to Ritchie and Lewis (2003), qualitative research is a type of scientific research that focuses on generating meaning and understanding through rich description. It can be a particularly useful approach as it focuses on the quality of the experiences trying to describe or understand the essence or nature of human experience. Qualitative research typically works to achieve different goals and uses different methods and designs. Qualitative research is especially effective in exploring, describing and interpreting data (Ritchie & Lewis, 2003). Qualitative research was deemed best for this study because it is typically more flexible as it enables a sense of freedom between the researcher and the participants (Ritchie & Lewis, 2003).
Researchers will need to have a close involvement with the participants to understand their perspective and interpretation regarding on a situation or phenomenon to develop an in-depth explanation. Qualitative research is done in a wide-angle lens as subjectivity is critical to examines the breadth and depth of phenomena. It is often designs in open-ended questions in order to analyse and interpret the data. The method for qualitative research includes ethnography, interview, historical research, participant observation and textual analysis. (Brennen, 2013) With the strengths of the both qualitative research and quantitative research, triangulation research method will be conducted to enhance and validate the research.
Quantitative research is defined as social research that employs empirical methods and empirical statements. An empirical statement can be understood as a descriptive statement about what “is” the case in the “real world” rather than what “ought” to be the case. Typically, empirical statements are expressed in numerical terms. Another factor in quantitative research is that it is empirical evaluations that are applied. Empirical evaluations are defined as a form that seeks to determine the degree to which a specific program or policy empirically fulfils or does not fulfil a particular standard or norm.
A research methodology addresses the subjects of research design, sources of data, technique for collecting the data, and data analysis. This study will employ interpretivism and positivism as research paradigms. This is because both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for the interviews, questionnaires, and observation in gathering and analysing the data that were collected. According to Creswell (2014) quantitative and qualitative approaches are the two basic paradigms of research. Both these methods are essential to the research process but Connaway and Powell (2010:117) point out that they require some common and some different skills.