Chapter Three Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction This chapter will provide insight into the research methodology that will be deployed throughout the study. The chapter will further aim to define the difference between qualitative and quantitative methodology, discuss what data collection is and which methods were chosen to undertake the research study. 3.2 Research Methodology Welman, Kruger & Mitchell (2005:2), 3.2.1 Quantitative research methodology defined 3.2.2 Qualitative research methodology defined The very nature of qualitative research methods does not lend to statistical or empirical calculations of validity (Brink, 1993:35). Qualitative research can be defined as “any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at
Experience, philosopher thinks, describes only that what is directly belongs to consciousness. In other words, experience is saying nothing about relationships in an external world, but relates just to development of perceptions in our feeling, because, by his opinion, causes that generating perceptions are unknowable. Like this, Hume eradicated whole outer world out and linked experience with perceptions. Hume thinks that ‘’understanding’’ is based exactly on perceptions. By perception he called ‘’everything that can be presented by brain, do we use our sensory organs or exhibit our thought and reflection.’’ He divided perceptions into two kinds: impressions and ideas.
Or is everything just happening at random, without any sequences at all. As for the second short story: “The Dancing Dwarf” it demonstrated how our imagination can change the perspective of a single event, whether or not the actions are justified as logical. Murakami has portrayed the characters of the story to believe everything that happened is always in sequence, never once question the reality of the situation. As Murakami has depicted our lives as solely human beings are accustomed to find ways of explaining certain events. Murakami also insert his thoughts on how the society perceives, using correlation instead of logic, the book quoted “Personally break the curse” (Second Bakery Attack, P42) and “Attack another bakery.
The questions should be broad and loosely structured, following the intent of the research questions. Next, the interview questions are accompanied by a list of possible sources of data. The literature was revisited between interviews to gain a better understanding of new data. Clear conceptualizations assisted in taking definitions into the study, and combined with the other sources of data, comprised the mass of data available to study the phenomenon of interest. Thinking in metaphors, and creating simplistic models and thematic maps were essential activities in data management.
3.7.1 Validity In qualitative research, validity refers to the extent to which the researcher manages to interpret the intended meaning from the language used by a participant whilst explaining their knowledge and experience (Saunders et al. 2012: 319). Interviews can result in a high level of validity as they enable flexibility and responsive interaction between the interviewer and participant allowing for meanings to be explored, topics to be covered from a range of viewpoints, and questions made clear to respondents. To ensure validity of the study, the researcher did not use any leading questions or preconceived ideas that could have influenced what is and not worth discussing as well as probed further and clarified questions that seemed
Cognitive Process Evaluate one model of one cognitive process Working Memory Model Working memory is one of the models that describe how memory processes information. Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch made this model in 1974 to show that the Short Term Memory(STM) rather complex; the model was derived from the multi store model produced by Atkinson-Shiffrin 1968. Which suggests the memory has three stores, the sensory, short term and long term. The working memory model consist of four sectors the Central Executive is the main important component which controls the other elements of the model. The model is controlled automatically by stimuli from the environment and also be able to create new strategies when the old ones are insufficient; in addition
This paper I will dig further into these concepts and how actually none of these themes have nothing to do with nonverbal communication examined by other authors. Over half of communication is nonverbal and understanding this concept will help us become more self-aware and better communicators. Review of Literature Nonverbals Usage Nonverbal communication is facial expressions, body language, hand gestures, and even the use of emoticons. Everyone uses nonverbal communication differently. According to Baek, Cha, Park (2012), people who grew up in an individualistic cultures express their emotions freely and their facial cues are more direct.
In order to have more accurate and precise data, a larger group of respondents is needed for this research. 3.11 ANALYSING DATA Google doc’s usage allow for the data to be automatically be converted into and excel file and also can be converted to pie chart and histogram. However in order to get the mean and standard deviation and other data, the researcher will use other program which is Minitab. This will allow the researcher to get an accurate data on all the survey that have been done 3.11.1 MINITAB Minitab is a statistics package developed at the Pennsylvania State University by researchers Barbara F. Ryan, Thomas A. Ryan, Jr., and Brian L. Joiner in 1972. Minitab began as a light version of OMNITAB, a statistical analysis program by NIST; the documentation for OMNITAB was published 1986, and there has been no significant development since then.
Becker.  As Robert Bogdan and Sari Biklen describe in their education text, "historians of qualitative research have never, for instance, included Freud or Piaget as developers of the qualitative approach, yet both relied on case studies, observations and indepth interviewing".  In the early 1900s, some researchers rejected positivism, the theoretical idea that there is an objective world which we can gather data from and "verify" this data through empiricism. These researchers embraced a qualitative research paradigm, attempting to make qualitative research as "rigorous" as quantitative research and creating myriad methods for qualitative research. Of course, such developments were necessary as qualitative researchers won national center awards, in collaboration with their research colleagues at other universities and departments; and university administrations funded Ph.D.s in both arenas through the ensuing decades.
advantages oResearch: • research design: Quantitative • Research method: Primary ek secondary(primary pou analysis of questionnaire ek secondary pou lit.review) • research method : primary ---- questionnaire • sampling techniques: non-probablity : Convinience sampling • 1 research hypothesis (H0 There is no relationship between Reward system and Employee Motivation H1 There is relationship between Reward system and Employee motivation). Advantages and limitations of research design. METHODOLOGY Research method can be defined as a methodical strategy when doing a research. There are different types of research such as the Qualitative and the Quantitative which comprises of surveys, observation, experiment and many more and then there are sampling methods while choosing respondents. Quantitative approaches helps to categorise different features and then use statistical tool in order to assess hypotheses and then explain the results found during the research.