The pre-experimental method was used for two main reasons. The first relates to the cause-and-effect relationship that may be claimed from the investigation. Using a quantitative approach “allows the researcher to focus sharply on causal relations” (Neuman, 2007:201). The second relates to the need to explore many factors potentially influencing L2 writing learning. Independent and dependent variables A variable in quantitative research is “a characteristic or attribute of an individual or an organization that can be measured or observed and that varies among the people or organizations being studied” (Creswell, 2009:50).
It could also be defined as social research that uses empirical methods and empirical statement. Since quantitative research is about collecting numerical data to explain a phenomenon, particular question seem immediately suited to being answered using quantitative method. Quantitative research is a systematic process used to gather and statistically analyze information that has been measured by an instrument. Instruments are used to convert information into numbers. It examines phenomenon through the numerical representation of observations and statistical analysis.
Qualitative Data Analysis Scholars and analysts have numerous strategies for conducting research. Various methods have different advantages and disadvantages that researchers consider before identifying the most appropriate design. While there are multiple ways of implementing research, quantitative and qualitative methods are arguably the most famous strategies for analysis. This webinar concentrates on qualitative data analysis and sheds light on various aspects including the meaning of qualitative data, the meaning of analysis, the most difficult stages of qualitative research, the major characteristics of analysis process, when data analysis should start and end, the major steps in data analysis and the crucial issues that may
Some common methods include focus group, individual interviews, and participation/observations. Common Techniques used in Qualitative Data Collection 1. Observations This kind of technique is very common used by most of the qualitative researchers, whereby they study on individual or individuals in effort to collect a raw data on programs, processes, or behaviours which been studied. The data is usually providing an information of a wide range of behaviors that occurred from varieties of interactions. Observations can develop a holistic perspective upon the study case based on both formative and summative phases of evaluation.
It utilises scientific method of testing evidence as randomised control trials, control groups and results from statistics and calculations based on numbered data (Ferguson, 2008). The purpose is to make practitioners use empirically-tested methods of practice that will allow practitioners to evaluate their own work (Allan, Briskman & Pease, 2009). Evidence-based practice can be useful in many context, especially when combined with qualitative research methods (Ferguson, 2008). However, it has many limitations in social work. It tends to prioritise the views of the researchers and fails to reflect the voices of service users.
Research Methods Newman, Ridenor, Newman, and DeMarco suggest that when the purpose of the research is complex, it is necessary to have multiple questions which frequently necessitate the use of mixed methods. Mixed methods have the potential to contribute to addressing multiple purposes and thus to meeting the needs of multiple audiences for the results (Newman, et al., 2002 as cited in Mertens & McLaughlin, 2004). A mixed method design is one in which both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to answer research questions in a single study (Mertens & McLaughlin, 2004, p. 112). Quantitative data is objective, deductive, and uses numbers while qualitative data is subjective, inductive, and uses words. Like Newman, et al., Morse agrees
Methodology In my thesis I utilized the quantitative content analysis method. There are many definitions of this research method from different authors. Most of the definitions include similar principles. The research should be systematical, objective, quantitative and replicable. Daniel Riff introduced in his book the major definition and compiled their aspects into his own.
Under inferential statistics, reliability analysis and a logistic regression has been done. Descriptive statistics are used to represent analyzed data in a meaningful and a clear way. 4.2 Reliability Test. Reliability analysis for this research allowed studying the properties of measurements and scales and the items that compose scales. Reliability analysis calculates number of commonly
However, several authors on research methods, notably Silverman, identify how how qualitative researchers may incorporate various strategies to deal with these issues (Shenton, 2004). However, Lincoln and Guba, 1985 cited in Tobin and Begley, (2004) address the issues of trustworthiness in qualitative research, by introducing criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and
In this report I am going to be comparing and contrasting quantitative and qualitative methods of research. Quantitative data is data that is generally focused on numbers for example methods like questionnaires and official statistics. Qualitative data is data that is a lot more in depth for example interviews and observations. I am going to be comparing questionnaires with interviews and official statistics with observations. Questionnaires are used to collect quantitative data as the results can be expressed with numbers.