Therefore, a focus was put, in this fieldwork, additionally on a qualitative analysis. The qualitative analysis, on the other hand, is believed to provide an insightful understanding of a particular event; it tends to be explanatory in nature describing and explaining some phenomenon such those related to the subjects’ opinions and experiences. In this respect, Cohen et al., (2007: 461) argue: Qualitative data analysis involves organizing, accounting for and explaining the data; in short, making sense of data in terms of the participants’ noting patterns, themes, categories and regularities In this research, qualitative analysis was undertaken to analyse some research instruments namely the teachers’ interview and the learners’ questionnaire consisting of those items that opened the floors to the participants to express themselves freely. It was meant out to explore and explain some events. With reference to this present investigation, findings gathered from different research procedures were analyzed through the examination of three main phases, they are: • Pre- training phase; • While training phase • Post-training
Two research approaches are there which includes inductive and deductive that can be used the researcher for collecting data and analysing it. The selection of the approach is dependent on the nature of the study that is qualitative and quantitative (Kumar, 2010). Deductive Approach Deductive approach is also known as top down approach that emphasise on the shifting the general perspective to the specific one. The focus of this approach is to make the researcher able to relate theory regarding topic with the aim of the study. For this purpose, the researcher focuses on making use of development of hypothesis.
In fact during the reading of different academic works I was able to highlight the creativeness and well-conceived papers that make me come to the assumption of being persuasive is also being direct and clear. Another strength that a research paper should demonstrate is the ability to analyse technical issues more deeply with clear statements. Perhaps, using examples allow the reader to have a direct comparison with real factors. In order to develop
These assumptions are said to determine how the researcher understands the research questions, the methods to be used and also how findings will be interpreted. According to Saunders et al. (2016:124), a well-structured and consistent set of assumptions will constitute a credible research philosophy which will support the choice of methodology, research strategy and data collection techniques and analysis procedures. Such a research philosophy will also permit the researcher to design a coherent project where all aspects fit together. The two most common types of research philosophies are positivism and
Research Design Research Paradigms and Designs There are three major research paradigms and various designs that fall within each paradigm. The three major research paradigms are: quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods. First let’s look at the quantitative paradigms many components. When explaining the quantitative paradigm it is important to note that data is numerical, objective, and follows the framework of scientific realism (Lodico, et al., 2006). “Scientific realist further assume that the social and psychological world can be studied in the same way as the natural world by breaking complex phenomena and problems into small parts (constructs and variables)” (Lodico, et al., 2006).
2 Perhaps the most important aspect of scientific research is its provability. A scientific research should be repeatable, and to be repeatable, it has to fulfill various aspects, such as having “empirical, focused questions, a careful record-keeping , and an accurate and honest reports of the findings.”(Bouma&Atkinson, 1996) The research question has to limit its scope by mentioning the details. Listing the factors and conditions which have to do with the matter at hand helps focus the question and convey the exact context of the research to the reader. When the factors are listed, it can ben seen which facts have been looked into, and being facts, they can be looked into again by anyone. This is the characteristic of what we call “facts”.
The proper implementation of research methodology and research strategy plays a pivotal role to have a complete organized research paper. The use of deductive and inductive has been recognize in this research paper, the more use of inductive approach is used as this literature is purely dependent upon the qualitative approach. As illustrated by the authors that the deductive is heavily used by the research that needs to be empirical data, it used by the researchers who are writing empirical form of research paper. This research paper has idea, theories that are tested by the use of papers, articles, knowledge etc that have been reviewed. Despite of having approach of inductive reasoning, this paper lacks in advantage of deductive reasoning as because are devoid of any formulated hypothesis.
A research methodology addresses the subjects of research design, sources of data, technique for collecting the data, and data analysis. This study will employ interpretivism and positivism as research paradigms. This is because both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for the interviews, questionnaires, and observation in gathering and analysing the data that were collected. According to Creswell (2014) quantitative and qualitative approaches are the two basic paradigms of research. Both these methods are essential to the research process but Connaway and Powell (2010:117) point out that they require some common and some different skills.
4 Research Methodology 4.1 Research objectives/goals/questions Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis (Clifford Woody cited in Kothari, 2004) Kothari (2004) defines methodology as ‘a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically’ while Somekh and Lewin (2005) define methodology as both ‘the collection of methods or rules by which a particular piece of research is undertaken’ and the ‘principles, theories
This study will adopt a mixed methods approach using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Mixed methods research is more specific in that it includes the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, methods, methodologies, and/or paradigms in a research study or set of related studies. Qualitatively driven approaches/designs in which the research study is, at its core, a qualitative study with a quantitative data or method added to supplement and improve the qualitative study by providing an added value and deeper, wider, and fuller or more complex answers to research questions. Qualitative quality criteria are emphasized but high quality quantitative data also must be collected and analysed (Creswell, 2009). 3.1 Semi-Structured