To start with, do you know that what is offender profiling? Different authors have defined offender profiling by using different terms such as specific profile analysis, psychological profiling, criminal profiling and criminal personality profiling. However, the basic concept of definitions remains the same (Jackson and Bekerian, 1997). Beauregard, Lussier and Proulx (2005) state that offender profiling provides some descriptive information on the behaviors and individuality of an offender. Number of suspects can be narrowed and finally solve the cases by analyzing the crime scene features.
This type of confession is commonly made to with the desire to protect the criminal (Deffenbacher, 1996), due to the inability to differentiate one’s fantasy and the reality, or to satisfy the need for attention (Gudjonsson, 2003). As an illustration, high-profile cases such as Nicole Brown Simpson murders in 1994, tends to attract a larger amount of voluntary false confession cases (Corwin, 1996). Another type
In the majority of criminal cases, the eyewitness is asked to provide information about what occurred at the crime they saw, and this information is stored in conscious recall, explicit memory. The major problem with recalling from explicit memory is that humans don’t remember every exactly, they remember a general idea of the scene they are reporting. When recalling information, the eye witness can mistake color, shapes, objects, people, and many other aspects. A national litigation and public policy organization called The Innocent Project, works to exonerate innocent convicts who were unjustly convicted due to lack of DNA evidence testing and eyewitness misidentification. They claim that the majority of wrongly convicted people is due to eyewitness
Forensic dna has bad unfair effects on society, that falls into social justice, framing innocent people. Dna forensics can help solve crimes and put unlawful people and criminals to jail, but can also be used to frame people/mistake dna into incriminating innocent people. Forensic dna is a science that uses genetic material in criminal investigation/crime scenes to help solve and profile crime scenes. Scientist can use a single strand of hair, fingerprint, or nail to solve who was at the scene.
There does not have to be proven evidence for the arrest. If the person is under suspicion of being armed and dangerous, their outer garments may be searched. 17. What is meant by “totality of the circumstances.” What is it used for?
The basis of criminal defense and prosecution is often formed by eyewitness testimonies. If these testimonies are inaccurate it could lead to a wrongly formed criminal defense and prosecution. According to Loftus, “It is clearly of concern to the law, to police and insurance investigators, and to others to know something about the completeness, accuracy, and malleability of such memories. " It is important to study the memory of an eyewitness because for the defense, prosecution, police, insurance investigators, and people involved in the crime or accident it is crucial to have accurate and reliable information.
Juries can make sure that the questioning process is conducted properly and with little bias. The witness should not be informed of the suspects so they can tell their testimony from a neutral perspective. The one who provides the lineup should also not know the suspect so they cannot provide any cues, like facial expressions, that reveal their thoughts, similar to a double blind procedure. When given a list of faces to recognize the perpetrator from, they should be reminded that the real criminal may or may not be there. The lineup should be organized in a way so that no specific person stands out in comparison.
We tend to mistake or confuse people in our daily lives, if one witnesses a crime are they most likely to remember what happened and recognize who did it? Memory can be easily deceived and we can create false memories. In psychology, there are numerous studies that focus on memory and on how accurately someone is able to recall a crime and the perpetrator. For instance, Elizabeth Loftus (1974) comes in mind when we talk about eyewitness testimonies and how the leading questions influence what we remember about an incident. Sometimes misinformation that is given to us can alter what we recall from the incident.
Criminal profiling, also known as offender or psychological profiling has been defined differently by different scholars. It is defined as "an educational attempt to provide investigative agencies with specific information as to the type of individual who committed the crime". (Vernon J. G.,1996) It refers to criminal investigation techniques adopted to set up the profile of the offender who is more likely to commit certain crime by gathering evidence and information from the crime scene, victims and witnesses. (Norbert E., 2007)
Because of the concept of statute of limitations, it is imperative for a police officer to actively submit police reports within a reasonable manner. If the prosecutor does not receive the information needed to indict a suspect, then he cannot prosecute the charge of domestic violence. This not only can lead to a suspect being released, but it can also lead to a victim becoming the suspect’s target again. Domestic Violence in Arizona In the Arizona statutes, the crime of domestic violence is defined as a criminal act that is committed by one family or household member against another (“Arizona Domestic Violence Laws”, n.d.).
From Crime Control to Crime Management: DNA and Shifting Notions of Justice. " The Genetic Imaginary"The test was inconclusive for the man with whom the woman acknowledged having intercourse. In vacating May 's conviction and getting a new trial, Judge Roger Crittenden concluded the results of the tests that are of such decision, value, or force that it would probably change the result if a new trial should be made. May was released from the Kentucky State Penitentiary at Eddyville. One of the main reasons DNA analysis can be helpful to forensic scientists is that in some of the tissues, mitochondrial DNA is in excess and compared to DNA.
Near Misses and Wrongful Convictions Erroneous convictions are a terrible injustice to those convicted and have the potential to deteriorate the public’s trust in the criminal justice system. An in-depth study was conducted by the National Institute of Justice and discussed by Dr. Jon Gould and John R. Firman during the presentation, “Wrongful Convictions: The Latest Scientific Research and Implications for Law Enforcement”. This study attempts to discover why some cases arrive into the system are near misses—this is an innocent person cleared or acquitted of all charges based on factual evidence—and other cases arrive into the system a different way become wrongful convictions, which these people are also factually innocent, it was just
The consequences to this type of deception is the possibility of the confession being thrown out of court and the defendant being set free or even worse, found not guilty. Most homicide detective should have a good working relationship with the prosecutors that prosecute homicide cases. The homicide detective should tell the prosecutor as soon as possible about the investigation, interrogation, and the outcome of the interrogation. This will allow the prosecutor to be able to defend your actions and find case law if
Ever since Sherlock Holmes, police and prosecutors have solved cases by confessions or eyewitness accounts, but recently they started solving cases from the forensic evidence found. In the passage, “Forensic Science: Evidence, Clues, and Investigation” by Andrea Campbell, forensic evidence is explained to be the most important evidence to present at trial. Forensic evidence are things like “fingerprints, body fluids, and bullets” (paragraph one). Forensic evidence is the evidence that’s found at the scene of a crime. In paragraph two, it says, “after police have secured the site, criminal investigators collect physical evidence.
There are many important factors in crime scene investigation, one of those involves serology and observing the blood spatters at a crime scene. Many steps are taken when dealing with blood at a crime scene, some of which are if the substance is actually blood, blood typing, discerning the origin of the blood, the direction of travel of the bloodstain, what weapon would have caused the bloodstain, etc. Serology and dealing with bloodstains can be a very difficult task for criminalists because blood also deals with DNA, what type of blood it is, identifying who the blood belongs to, what caused the bloodstain, and what direction it originated from. To understand serology, it is probably best for one to understand the nature of blood first.