Gas Chromatographic studies on both aqueous and alcohol extract reveles the presence of twenty eight compounds, out of which oleic acid, constitutes the major part. Other major biological compounds include pelargonidin-3-5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3- galactoside, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, gentisic acid, arachidic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, apigenin, apigenin-7-oglucuronide.The seeds show the presence of arachidic acid, cyclopropenoid, linoleic acid, malvalic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid (Chopra et al,
EXENATIDE Pharmacology Exenatide is a synthetic form of naturally occurring peptide Exendin-4 in Gila monster 16. It has 50% of sequence homology with native GLP-1 with the substitution of amino acid Arg with Gly at 2nd position, which provides resistance against DPP-4 and a half life of ~2-4hr. It is administered 60min before breakfast and dinner, with a predominant effect of reduction in PPG (Postprandial glucose) 17. Exenatide is rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration and eliminated through kidneys after proteolytic degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV.18 Clinical Pharmacology The efficacy and safety of exenatide (5µg and 10µg) administered in patients with T2DM has been assessed in a series of 30-week clinical studies called AMIGO (AC2993 Diabetes Management for Improving Glucose Outcomes).19 AMIGO were triple blind, placebo-controlled studies where more no. of patients treated
To 0.05 ml of carbonate buffer (0.05 M, pH 10.2) and 0.5 ml of EDTA (0.49 M) was added. The reaction was initiated by the addition of 0.4ml of epinephrine and the change in optical density/min was measured at 480nm. SOD activity was expressed as units/mg protein change in optical density/min. 50% inhibition of epinephrine to adrenochrome transition by enzyme is taken the enzyme unit. Calibration curve was prepared by using 10 -125 units of
Extracted from the leaves of coca Erythroxylon by Scherzer in 1850, and then synthesized in 1860 by Niemann, cocaine is the first Local Anesthetic discovered. It was used in eye surgery in 1884 in Vienna by Karl Köller. Through his experiences, Köller had demonstrated that it was possible to paralyze the nerve endings in the cornea or conjunctiva of the eye by flowing a few drops of an aqueous
1. Background Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent licensed as a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis in patients with moderate to severe illness or recent exposure to azoles . Caspofungin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of (1,3)-β-D-glucan of the fungal cell wall, ultimately causing cell death . The recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin is a loading dose of 70 mg followed by 50 mg daily (70/50 mg), administered intravenously over 1 h. Caspofungin is highly protein bound (~ 96%) and metabolizes slowly in the liver [3-5]. Its liver uptake is a biphasic process and its binding to the surface of hepatocytes is fast and reversible.
Chemical structure Linezolid is the first member of the group Oxazolidinone antibiotics. Oxazolidinones (sulfoxide 1) were first characterized for their use in treating plant diseases in 1978. Six years later antibacterial properties were discovered, with greatly improved antibacterial properties relative to their progenitor compounds. It is usually these two compounds, which are referred to as the first true lead compounds in the oxazolidinone family (lead compound - compound that exhibits pharmacological properties which suggest its value as a starting point for drug development). Further structural discussion led to piperazine derivatives.Those compounds were selected for further modification as they combined excellent activity with an
History of Glyphosate Commercial Use Glyphosate is a white crystal-like powder with the chemical formula of C3H8NO5P. Several researchers confirmed that glyphosate was synthesized in 1950 by Henri Martin who was working for a pharmaceutical company at that time (Alibhai and Stallings, 2001; American Chemical Society, 2010; Dill et al., 2010). In a separate research work conducted by the Monsanto Company, the chemists were able to discover two glyphosate-related chemicals that have weak herbicidal activities against weeds. Another chemist in Monsanto Company named John Franz synthesized other compounds based on the two glyphosate-related compounds and eventually found out the potential of glyphosate as a herbicide. Later on, the glyphosate
APOMORPHINE AND PARKINSON’S DISEASE History of apomorphine The early reported synthesis of apomorphine was by Arppe in 1845 and later by Matthiesen and Wright in 1869 which involved reacting morphine with hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid respectively ((Art 2 from 218). Thereafter, apomorphine had found its use in veterinary therapeutics to treat problems associated with behavior of farmyard animals. By 1874, it was known that apomorphine led to emetic effects along with various effects influencing the central nervous system. In medicine, it was recommended as emetic, sedative, as well as treatment for narcotic and alcohol addiction. Weil in 1884 suggested apomorphine for its potential use in treating Parkinson’s disease (14 from 218).
Comparing with antibiotics as one of treatments conducted currently, the vaccine was derived from the virulent US strain and has been shown to protect against both the US and China virulent strains (Hossain et al. 2014). Poobalane claimed that a recombinant vaccine for the S-layer protein of Aeromonas hydrophila is able to protect common carp against six virulent isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila (Poobalane et al. 2010). S-layer protein is the common antigen found on all the isolates at around 50 kDa, and recombinant protein technology was used to produce sufficient quantities of the S-layer protein to enable large-scale vaccine trials to examine the ability of this protein to elicit protection against a variety of different Aeromonas hydrophila isolates.
Deca Durabolin (”Deca”) is actually the brand name for Organon´s version of the compound Nandrolone Decanoate. This is a 19-Nor compound (some would say that it is the 19-norcompound), and as such, it shares basically the same characteristics with all of them. One thing unique to Deca, above nearly all steroids, is the mystique it has had for the last quarter of a century. Deca cycles at doses ranging from 100mgs/weekto2, 000mgs per week. First of all, Deca (and Nandrolone in general) doesn´t produce many estrogenic or androgenic side effects.
Goodpasture and Anderson detected multinucleated giant cells in a human skin/ chorioallantoic membrane culture system infected with herpes zoster lesion fluid in 1944 (107), and infectious VZV was isolated in tissue culture by Weller and Stoddard in 1953 (258). Knowledge about the molecular virology of VZV and mecha- nisms of pathogenicity has grown during the past two decades. The complete VZV genome has been sequenced, the infectiv- ity of intact VZV DNA has been demonstrated (39, 53), and, most recently, infectious virus has been produced from cos- mids spanning the genome (39). Antiviral agents that modify the severity of varicella and herpes zoster have been devel- oped, and a live attenuated varicella vaccine that protects against primary VZV infection is now licensed for clinical use (3, 245, 260,
The yield of 3-nitrochalcone was 0.786 grams after filtration (percent yield of 62.04%). Multiple peaks were observed in the IR spectrum of 3-nitrochalcone at 1348.14 (N-O bond); 1593.33 (benzene ring); 1658.86 (unsaturated ketone). The carbon-carbon bonds are widely used in the drug industry to manufacture drugs and aldor condensation is used. Figure 1: Synthesis of 3-Nitrochalcone from 3-Nitrobenzaldehyde Source: cnx.org Figure 2: Mechanism Involved in the Synthesis of 3-Nitrochalcone Source: cnx.org