Even after the emergence of the US constitution, rights were not granted equally. I believe that it is quite hypocritical from the US to possess a constitution, which is addressed to everyone, but not applied to everyone. For example, the fourteenth amendment, which clearly tackles the equal protection of the laws, only truly applies to the whites rather than all peoples in the United States. Therefore, I believe that the latter aspect confirms Harris’s claims of the privilege of being white.
In Marlon Riggs’ 1992 documentary film titled Color Adjustment, Riggs, the Emmy winning producer of Ethnic Notions, continues his studies of prejudice in television. The documentary film looks at the years between 1948 and 1988 to analyze how over a 40 year period, race relations are viewed through the lens of prime time entertainment. The film examined many of television’s stereotypes and mythes and how they changed over the years.
In other words, race is understood differently around the world. According to the text book, in West Africa, people are categorized into racial groups based on the status of having noble ancestry and not physical features. Also, according to the article, “Defining Race”, race is categorized base on individuals’ social class status and wealth. Furthermore, the invention of race reflects social, economic, and political aspects in society. For example, White American who has white and black ancestry will be considered as black because black slaves are free source of labor, and white population want to increase the number of labor. On the other hand, White Australian are considered as White even though he/she has Aboriginal ancestry because Aboriginal people are source of free land and White population want to occupy the land successfully. In conclusion, these three arguments have shown that race is socially constructed and not based solely on biologically
Race has always been a problem in America and other countries. But developments such as Critical Race Theory (CRT) has helped challenge race and racial power and its representation in American society. Articles such as Critical Race Theory: An Introduction by Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic; White Privilege, Color, and Crime: A Personal Account by Peggy McIntosh have helped CRT develop further. Along with the documentary White Like Me by filmmaker Tim Wise. These articles and film explore the race and racism in the United States, along with critical race theory. In this paper, I will be critiquing these articles and films in order to evaluate the purpose of these readings and how they have helped further develop race in America. But most importantly, whether the author has achieved its purpose to inform readers about CRT, whiteness, and racial inequality.
The video introduces the idea of “in between people. These in between people were of European Decent and could be transformed into Americans by Americanizing them into the White American. They would be apart of a term known as the “melting pot”. A melting of all European Descent to mold them into Americans. Italians, Germans and other European could be apart of the American way of life by being taught the language and customs. This melting pot exclude black people, chinese, puerto ricans, and other people of color. They could never fit or be apart of the pot. Race in some cases in this time of Americanizing is fluid only if you can fit in the white American life style. The races with fairer skin are more fluid and can pass for white American.
The major thesis in this book, are broken down into two components. The first is how we define racism, and the impact that definition has on how we see and understand racism. Dr. Beverly Tatum chooses to use the definition given by “David Wellman that defines racism as a system of advantages based on race” (1470). This definition of racism helps to establish Dr. Tatum’s theories of racial injustice and the advantages either willingly or unwillingly that white privilege plays in our society today. The second major thesis in this book is the significant role that a racial identity has in our society. How we see others have an impact on how we create laws and access to quality education, financial and social resources. Furthermore, how
This simple nine word quotation from Matshona Dhliwayo summarizes much of what Jane Elliot has spent her entire career trying to get people to understand. Watching the film, The Essential Blue Eyed, gave me an entirely new perspective on racism and in truth, showed how ignorant I had been. Jane Elliot is able to give study participants and viewers a completely new perspective on the social construction of race.
At the heart of whiteness studies is the invisibility of whiteness and white privilege (Ahmed, 2004). Whiteness is thought of as the hidden criterion to which every other race is measured against. Through the lens of whiteness, the “other” is seen as deviant (Ahmed, 2004). The invisibility of whiteness, however, is only from the perspective of those who are white (Matthews, 2012). To people who are not white, it is pervasive and blatant. People see whiteness because they experience its effects. A useful comparison can be drawn between the unrecognised privileges of males, and those of white people (McIntosh, 1988). It is not unusual for men to acknowledge that women are disadvantaged. With that said, McIntosh (1988) argues that white privilege is in the same manner without recognition and thus preserved. McIntosh (1988) views white privilege as an invisible collection of unearned assets that is of benefit to white people on a daily basis.
In the books Citizen by Claudia Rankine and Note of a native son by James Baldwin, they not only memorializes key eruptions of racial violence in recent American life, they also document the ongoing, ordinary, subtle experiences that characterize the racism of everyday life; Rankine suggests that the racialized violence of daily life is also what happened before it (the moment of social crisis) happened. The significance of their correlation of works is that regardless of time period, race, gender, sexuality and style of writing, somewhat similar concepts can be expressed through various methods and carry the same level of effectiveness despite their contextual differences. One main effect these two books is to reveal the United States to
Throughout history social scientists have been trying to examine the different parameters of race in terms of phenotypic characteristics, and cultural behaviors regarding the different groups that society construct’s. legally judges have had different rulings regarding the categorization of different ethnicities and groups within the United States. Many philosophers such as Kwame Appiah, and Scientists such as Dr. James Watson have had opposing arguments on the topic of race and whether it exists or not. In order to do so we need to examine the different definitions of race, and analyze them in order to see how race is a social construct, where people’s notions of race and their interactions with different races determine the way they perceive
The film 'Ethnic Notions ' illustrates various ways in which African Americans were impersonated during the 19th and 20th centuries. It follows and shows the development of the rooted stereotypes which have generated bias towards African Americans. If a film of this kind had such an affectionate influence on me, it is no surprise people adopted these ideas back then. The use of new and popular media practices in those days was more than adequate in selling the black inferiority to the general public. The only purpose of these stereotypes gave a false narrative of black people. They were and are still propaganda to encourage the white society that slavery was "great" and black is inferior.
Within the essay, “Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference”, Audre Lorde discusses the systematic oppression and hierarchical structure imposed on Black people, third-world people, and working-class people. She succinctly mentions how the power dynamic rests mainly on white and heterosexual males, and that they evade responsibilities in order to maintain such structures. They also misname and refuse to recognize such differences in race, class, gender, and sexuality, therefore persisting racial erasure. In conjunction to her essay, Cherrie L. Moraga analyzes the alienation in class and culture in her article, “La Guera”. Throughout this article, she sees the intersectionality between sexuality and race, and utilizes her mother’s
Critical Whiteness Studies responds to the invisible and normative nature of whiteness in predominantly white societies, criticizing racial and ethnic attribution of non-white subjects who have to grapple with their deviation from the set norm, and opening the discussion on white privilege that results from being the unmarked norm (Kerner: 278). As Conway and Steyn elaborate, Critical Whiteness Studies aims to “redirect[...] the scholarly gaze from the margins to the centre” (283) and, more specifically, to
Part I: During the last lecture sessions, Dr. Jendian talked about appreciating diversity, race, ethnicity, and racism. In his lecture, we learned that many people believe that race is something biological. However, the true reality is that race is a social construct and not a biological one. For example, in the documentary Race: The Power of An Illusion, we were able to understand that there are more variations among people in the same “race” than with people from another “race.” However, physical differences, for example, the most obvious skin color, has created prejudices against minority groups. These prejudices that “white” people carry leads to discrimination against people of color. During the lecture, Dr. Jendian explained about ethnocentrism as well. The definition that he provided states that we judge others using our culture’s values, beliefs, and practices. Therefore, we believe the way of doing things is superior, so other people’s ways are inferior. For example, the professor explained that one day he went to a Oaxacan restaurant and that he ate crickets. He explained that for people that don’t have the same culture, this food might be uncommon, however, it is not uncommon for the people of Oaxaca. According to Aguirre and Tuner in their chapter “Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations,” minority groups are single out living on unequal treatment, thus, becoming objects of discrimination. For example, one of the minority groups
One of the most talented and the most popular singers of the modern time is considered to be Adele. For me, she is not only a popular singer but an icon and the great performer of moving and even heartbreaking songs. After I have accidentally heard her song on the radio for the first time, there was no one better for me in terms of singing. In her songs, I felt everything, including pain and joy, drive and hope. However, the most important characteristic of her songs is the soul that is felt in every particular case. The three of my favorite songs are “Rolling in the deep”, “Hello”, and “Skyfall”. Adele’s impressive voice, her skill of using it, and her determination to sing with all heart have definitely brought her numerous fans.