Though biblical accounts for inferiority ran rampant, the objective of the proponents of natural history looks at physical characteristics, and the basis of white supremacy is in classification. These observable characteristics of racial classes pertained to character and disposition (West pg.56) According to Dr. West there are three stages in the emergence of white supremacy. First was the “normative gaze” the concept that basically the Greek concept of beauty is the norm (West pg. 55). This is the emergence of categorizing race denoting skin color to classify human bodies.
We can talk of prominent sociologists Max Weber and Franz Boas, who attributed on the refutation of the biological concept of race, dedicated to remove the ambiguous racial aspect from fundamental social, political, or economic determination. Years ago, white viewed “any racial intermixture makes one ‘non-white’” because they put white in a category of “pure,” which meant “white as “havin’ a little Negra blood in ya’-just one little teeny drop and a person’s all Negra.” Here came with a principle of social concept: hypo-descent. Thus, “black” turned out to be a word with different meanings in society, and faced the racial difficulties with stereotypes. "Micro-level" of racism mention in the writing, in which was drawn with social concepts by Omi and Winant. The concept is more likely separates two people by a noticeable factor- race.
Throughout history social scientists have been trying to examine the different parameters of race in terms of phenotypic characteristics, and cultural behaviors regarding the different groups that society construct’s. legally judges have had different rulings regarding the categorization of different ethnicities and groups within the United States. Many philosophers such as Kwame Appiah, and Scientists such as Dr. James Watson have had opposing arguments on the topic of race and whether it exists or not. In order to do so we need to examine the different definitions of race, and analyze them in order to see how race is a social construct, where people’s notions of race and their interactions with different races determine the way they perceive
Contrary to the expectations of many individuals in the United States, race and ethnicity are not the same. Although both race and ethnicity are connected in the fact that both are socially constructed in modern times, race and ethnicity did not originate under similar circumstances. Race is more concrete and not dynamic, ultimately causing one’s race to be solidified in an individual’s early stages of development in society. Race was originally created in order to oppress certain individual’s in society and allow one group of individuals to be seen as superior and other groups as inferior, thereby proliferating oppression and establishment of distinctions between the in-group and the out-group. Race was not created as a way to understand the
In particular, the traits associated with Blackness are assigned in opposition to whiteness, which is alleged to represent purity, intelligence, beauty, modernity, and other mythical ideals. On a surface level, the terminology of Blackness is assigned to people who fit a particular set of characteristics, including, but not limited to, dark skin, or any skin that does not resemble the pale, non-melanated skin of Europeans. According to Cooper, racialization is based on the “Western self, reflecting its fears and obsessions concerning the body, sexuality, and mortality” on Black people (95). Characteristics, including ugliness, hypersexuality, and criminality, are then assigned to the category of Blackness, which further distances Black people from white people, who consider themselves to be superior (Fanon 10). Furthermore, the process of racialization is inherently gendered.
Having different races and ethnicities is not an issue, but ranking the different races and putting others at disadvantages creates issues. Racism occurs when a minority group is defined, negative characteristics are associated with them, and they are kept at a disadvantage to others. The most interesting aspect of racism is how people justify making their classifications. Race is a socially constructed term. This means people of a society made up race without any real backing or evidence to do so.
This division has continued to play an important part in the social-political atmosphere in the country. Here, it is worth noting that the “black-white binary” is not necessarily used to differentiate those who are “black,” or African Americans, with those who are generally considered “white,” such as Caucasians, but rather to group people of different ethnicities. In this case, even individuals who are Asian (such as Chinese) or Latino (such as Mexicans) can be grouped as “black.” Here, Alcoff noted that while Chinese Americans were classified as white in 1860, but the children of both Chinese and non-Chinese parents were being classified as either black or white in 1900 despite the fact that they were classified as Chinese before. On the other hand, there have been cases in which Latinos and Asians have either been categorized as either “black” or “white,” with no in-between. This shows that it is possible to see how the black-white binary takes precedence over one;s ethnicity.
The construct of race was founded on the notion that white people were superior and colored people, especially black people were inferior. Such inferior groups were doomed to be ruled by the superior ones. This construction of white people were superior
Race, nationality and ethnicity Race and ethnicity are seen as form of an individual’s cultural identity. Researchers have linked the concept of “race” to the discourses of social Darwinism that in essence is a categorization of “types” of people, grouping them by biological and physical characteristics, most common one being skin pigmentation. Grouping people based on their physical traits has lead in time to the phenomenon of “racialization” (or race formation), as people began to see race as more of a social construct and not a result or a category of biology. Race cannot exist outside of representation, and that it is formed in the conscience of individuals after either a social process (the status of certain people within a society) or by factors such as political power (what laws are imposed on what people) and only then are observable characteristics of an individual transformed into race signifiers. If racialization compartmentalizes people based on a wide range of characteristics, ethnicity takes the concept of categorization to a more precise and static level.