Racial profiling is big in our school systems, the biggest case of racial profiling is the case of Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka, and the case declared state laws establishing separate public schools for white and black students to become unconstitutional. Nearly 60 years later the education system still continues to single out Black Americans. The average student suspension rate is 11% however if that student is Black then the rate jumps to 24%. Studies have shown that students that are more problematic are black students, but when it comes to consequences the black students are either kicked out of school or put into a room. In most cases, those students are just shipped to alternative school because of suspension rate.
Data obtained in 2002 from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) show that minorities including African American, Hispanic and American Indian students are severely underrepresented in GATE programs, and the underrepresentation is always greater than 40 percent (Ford, Grantham & Whiting, 2008). Statistically, African American students are overly represented in Special Education programs in part due to the lack of accurate identification. The publication of A Nation at Risk reported alarming data that indicated that as much as 20 percent of the students that dropped out of school were in fact gifted and not identified (as cited by Ford, 1992).
Children experience violence, through witnessing gang violence at school, violence at home, and public lynching. In a United Nations Refugee Agency study of four hundred unaccompanied minors, forty-eight percent experienced violence by crime-organized groups, twenty-two percent experienced abuse at home, and thirty nine percent were recruited into human smuggling. Violence, specifically gang violence, homicides, and sexual abuse, has increased within the past decade, and the homicide rate doubled between 2000 and 2006. As a result, it can be less dangerous to migrate to the United States than to stay in Guatemala. In an interview on National Public Radio, Jose Alberto Lima Barrera, a child migrant, says “it’s scarier here than making the dangerous trek through Mexico”.
In fact, Ryan et al observed in about 18 months of the initial arrest, nearly 61 percent experience a subsequent arrest. A majority, at least 67 percent of the subsequent offenses transpired before the youth turned 18 years of age. In response to the increasing juvenile cases involving children who commit violent offenses, there are a number of theories that have been advanced to attempt and explain delinquent offenses however; the major theory that best explains juvenile delinquency is the Social Disorganization
The literature review clearly has shown that there is a phenomenon called School to Prison, Schoolhouse to Jailhouse, or Public Education to Prison Pipeline. Therefore, Jeremy Thompson (2016) says, “Zero-tolerance policies in schools result in high suspension rates and expulsion rates among students in general, but disproportionately affect minority students, especially African-Americans because students who have been suspended or expelled are more likely than not to end up in the Criminal Justice
Metze, P. S. (2017). Plugging the School to Prison Pipeline by Addressing Cultural Racism in Public Education Discipline. HeinOnline, 16, 203-312. Retrieved January 12, 2017. https://jjlp.law.ucdavis.edu/archives/vol-16-no-1/PMetze%20-Plugging%20the%20School%20to%20Prison%20Pipeline%20.pdf
When contact into the juvenile justice system is exhibited by minority youth at a significantly higher rate than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts, a racial disparity exists within the system. Years of racial segregation, discrimination and the overall mistreatment of minorities in the public, however, have influenced the disparity trend. Although minorities represent 21% of the U.S. population for adolescents in 2011, they represented 71% of all adolescents held in detention while committing 66% to a juvenile facility upon determination of delinquency. Accordingly, the percentage of minorities who made contact with the juvenile system is more than double their percentage in population. Likewise, although data on juvenile delinquency has
This also causes and increase in school dropout which without obtaining a proper education makes it difficult to gain employment, therefore, makes the decision on joining the gangs much easier. (Arum &Beattie 1999) found that students who report being suspended in high school were 2.2 times more likely to be incarcerated as adults than students with no history of
“Youth incarceration, in particular, exploded: by 1997, more than 107,000 kids were behind bars, only about a quarter for violent offenses.” (This quote explains how many kids are in adults prisons now. Many kids are suffering because they grew up with a bad future already. When you start off bad it's hard to rise to the top. Kids are young and without guidance of parents, kids will do stupid things.
In the juvenile system, black children are up to 18 times as likely to be sentenced as adults than white children, and African American youth that is accused of felonies are inclined to be viewed as more at fault for their crimes than are white youth. Research that was constructed by the National Council on Crime and Delinquency and the Center for Children’s Law and Policy suggested that minority youth are presented with harsher treatment than their white peers through almost every stage of the juvenile justice process. The process is already the punishment, but being a minority can make it worse. Minority juveniles are sentenced for longer periods and are less likely to receive alternative sentences or probation compared to white juveniles (Armour & Hammond, 2009,
In “Turning off the School-to-Prison Pipeline,” Henry Wilson notes that the zero-tolerance policy has become a significant contributor to the raised number of young individuals being marked as a failure and eventually lead up to belonging in the justice system. Schools have become one of the biggest contributors to the raised number of young individuals being sent to prison in America. “Prisons spawn a new generation of future prisoners: there are more than two million children with at least one incarcerated parent, and these youth are five times more likely to end up in prison themselves” (49). Due to the 80’s and 90’s increased crime rate, people began to fear those in urban areas leading to the increased penalties for juvenile offenders.
According to penalreform.org, America has the 2nd highest overcrowding rate of 320% compared to Africa 's 363%. Factors that contribute to this trend are zero-tolerance policies and inner city social and economic isolation (naacp.org). Both of those factors build a strong candidate for a future prisoner - already facing social and economic challenges and then being expelled from school due to the harsh zero-tolerance policies. It may seem like these policies are helping eliminate the troublemakers from society, but they are also taking away the future of the world. By expelling students, they lose both their education as well as other activities they are involved in (Perry), which keep them out of trouble.
The deep rooted racism that effects African American students today. I know in 2017 that sentence sounds crazy. How do African American’s still experience racism, especially in schools, segregation is against the law? African Americans have the same access to the same types of education as anyone else. While at face value both statements are true, with a more in depth look they are false.
In April of this year a U.S. District Court Judge approved Gardendale, Alabama’s decision to secede from its own school district in order to form its own more exclusive one. While the original school district encompassed a broad range of diverse students from various neighborhoods, the new Gardendale one would be nearly entirely white students from affluent neighborhoods. The succession has attracted a large amount of media attention, and caused many to speak out against this modern segregation of the school district. But the reality is that this isn’t just happening in Gardendale, it is everywhere and it is much subtler than a major move like a school district secession. Think about the schools in your district, some are likely really nice and have great reputations; others are far worse, run down with disciplinary issues and receiving poor test scores year after year.
Throughout the course of time, it was common amongst white American students to be homeschooled. Now, despite the fact that any sort of racial segregation or discrimination is illegal, many African-American kids are being homeschooled since they suffer from such actions. In contrast, white children are homeschooled for completely different reasons. The main reasons why African-American families tend to homeschool their children are because of: Eurocentric curriculum and teacher’ attitudes, racial stereotypes, and harsh school punishments. Firstly, parents believe that the schools throughout the world are promoting European ethnocentrism.