Lastly, not only is offering knowledge important, but to give this to the struggle for public righteousness. Critical race theory is a basis for action and is intended to transform education to fit the needs of all students. This transformation is for both society and social group’s struggles which is good because it produces integrity. Limitations the critical race theory may have is that racialization can be falsely generalized and stereotyped for any biological factor that people understand as race to describe the differences. Another is there are CRT scholars who have different claims who are either realists or idealists.
Multicultural competence can be an ethical issue for a counselor when working with clients. It can be an ethical issue when individuals have different culture believes then others. A counselor can have ethical issues when working with a client that does not understand their culture believes. Counselors needs to be aware of their client culture believes before they start working with them.
Therapist who practice this approach are trained to define, identify, and understand multicultural issues in order to treat clients. When a professional counselor works with a client from a different cultural background, the counselor needs to define differences such as religion, gender, family, history, and sexual orientation between client and counselor. In addition, identifying differences require techniques including body language, eye contact, and open ended questions. In some cultures directness is considered impolite (Delaware University, 2014). Acknowledging and considering these differences is essential to establishing a trusting therapeutic relationship.
This article is helpful as it notes the issues associated with binary gender discourse and biological determinism. It explains the way in which identity can be lost through gender binary and the emotional impact it can have on those that don’t feel that they identify as either. It also delves into how different contexts of situations and environments effect how a person shapes their identity. It also explores how these discourses create perceptions of gender to others as well as to themselves. 3.
According to Howard S. Becker, American Sociologist, culture is defined as the shared ways of a human social group that includes the ways of thinking, understanding, and feeling that have been gained through common experience and passed from generation to generation. Thus cultural understanding expects its people to have same beliefs, and brings people to act under cultural norms. However, when a person in a community has different beliefs than them, then culture oppresses that person’s life in order to make he/she live under cultural expectation or eliminate that person from its culture in the name of deviant. Culture can be a community with encouragement, comfort and peace but it also can be a cold isolated place for people with different beliefs. In both stories, “No Name Woman” and Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, describe isolated life of women under cultural oppression who deviated from
Whether through art or language, representations of identity ensue from processes that communicate what manners of being are considered culturally valid within a society. The expression of these expected conditions of existence depends on normative forms of social conditioning, and it is from within this fixed set of self-reproducing actions that hegemonic apparatuses possess power over people. Owing to an ideological foundation situated among various terms pioneered by Gloria Anzaldúa in her piece titled Borderlands/La Frontera, José Esteban Muñoz develops an ability to comprehend how the performance of intersubjective queerness disturbs essences of normativity, and comforts those who disidentify with mainstream perception. The following concepts
Ethnocentrism occurs when one culture comes into contact with another. It the evaluation of one culture based on preconceived ideas that have derived from the customs and traditions from one’s own culture. William Summer, an American sociologist, believes that an ethnocentrism is “A view of things in which one’s own group is the centre of everything and all others are scaled and rated in reference to it” (Sorrells 2013). This phenomenon can have detrimental outcomes; such as stereotyping and prejudice both of which may hinder intercultural relations and assimilation therefore impacting on societal cohesion.
Greene and Lee (2002) states that when considering the social constructivist approach an understanding of the way individuals function within society is important to appreciate the meaning they ascribe to their experiences of society and culture. Dean (1993 suggests that knowledge and meaning are created and influenced by institutions within the environment. From this individual suffering from mental illness will create their reality and will then view future experiences through this (Dewees, 1999) As previously explored dominate members of society determine values, beliefs and norms that is supported and maintained by that society. Kondrat and Teater (2009) suggest that if individuals do not ascribe to these they are considered ‘abnormal’
Introduction and thesis: The topic chosen for this essay concerns the relationship between racial profiling and sentencing. It is relevant to the course material because it concerns the ways someone is treated depending on his or her ethnic origins, and it makes it an interesting sociological and criminological phenomena. This is the reason why I chose to write on this topic, and because I find it an important issue in our society. This essay will demonstrates that visible minorities are more likely to be subjects to harsher sentencing than the majority, and more than them. Literature review: Our society is made of a majority and minorities, and it allows diversity.
If the individual’s expectations have been violated, it can cause a positive or negative perception about the situation and the person they are interacting with (Griffin, 2014). An individual will implement a positive or negative value on the behavior of the person that has violated their expectation. Furthermore, they will evaluate the person in order to conclude weather they will bring either more rewards or punishments into their lives in the future (Griffin, 2014). The theory helps us understand interactions and their complexities because it takes into account that people’s expectations and behaviors towards situations are different due to cultural values and their personal experiences (Burgoon, 1993). Therefore, the place and the way they grow up strongly influences the expectations they have within their interactions/relationships.
The study of attitudes has helped us to further our insight into understanding human behaviour. Models such as the Tripartite model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour provide a structure to how our attitudes influence our behaviour. Attitude is defined as a general feeling of evaluation towards an object/person, positive or negative (Hogg, 2013). The Tripartite Model of Attitudes proposed by Rosenberg and Hovland provides a structure to how our attitudes towards something affect our behaviour.
As we have discussed Stephanie’s heritage, we have seen the impact a person’s cultural heritage can have on them as a counselor. As we have discussed, it’s important for the therapist to have self awareness about not only their cultural heritage, but also areas they are prone to privilege and also discrimination, as both of these can lead to barriers in the therapeutic alliance. As counselors work on becoming culturally competent counselors they will want to reflect on their own bias, assumptions, and stereotypes, gain knowledge about various cultures, and utilize this information in a way that will make them culturally competent counselors.
What ethnic and cultural background practitioners of the TBOSS program have? Are practitioners of the TBOSS program sensitive to the culture of the individuals they serve? Hypothesis 1: When practitioners and clients have matching ethnic and cultural background treatment is more effective. Hypothesis 2: When sensitive to client’s culture practitioner can build a better rapport and service outcomes.
A culture, by definition, is a set of shared beliefs within a society; learning how to interact with people from different cultures is important in order to communicate and work with each other. It helps us become understanding of one another and widens our perspective of what the world has to offer. To be able to cross cultural communicate with others, the first step is to be aware that every culture is complex and has its differences. While traveling to new countries and trying to understand each other, there is a large possibility of miscommunication, which can come in the form of misinterpreting messages or body language; therefore, it is crucial to keep an open mind whilst communicating. There are multitudes of factors in various cultures that play a role in decision making, so being aware of the expectations that are influenced by someone’s culture will help you understand their choices.