The article is discussing how public schools are forcing students of color and who are economically disadvantaged out of schools and placed into juvenile justice systems. The author explains there is a high number of students who do not graduate from high school; with numbers steadily increasing each year. Therefore, the author finds it necessary to discuss school discipline policies in the article and present how different students find themselves being
The first African American woman to receive their doctoral degree in psychology is Inez Beverly Prosser. Prosser first began teaching in Texas segregated school systems. She graduated in 1993 from the University of Cincinnati with her PhD in educational psychology and she is well known for her dissertation, "The Non-Academic Development of Negro Children in Mixed and Segregated Schools.” In her dissertation she found African American students significantly benefited from segregated schools compared to an integrated schools. This is because they received more affection and support versus an integrated school where they had problems adjusting academically, socially and even in accepting their own identity.
In OCRS data collection in 20006, African American were three times more likely to be suspended or expelled from school as compared to white students. For a preschool student, the standard punishment for such should be done in the schools and should not involve a suspension. Finding employment opportunities is also an issue where the blacks in the US face discrimination. Black graduates are twice less likely to get employment as compared to white graduates. The unemployment rates for the blacks have been twice that of the whites in the US for decades.
Third, interviews with students from Hawthorne middle school in Pocatello, Idaho prove that they aren’t treated the same as white students. In Idaho, students of color are suspended at a higher rate than white students. According to the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, forty-nine percent of male students that are suspended in the state of Idaho are colored. While only five percent of male students suspended in Idaho are white. It shows that colored students are suspended more often than white students.
With this said students within low-income communities are already disadvantaged and stripped from many opportunities that other students are utilizing. Moreover, a black student is three times more likely to be suspended when compared to a white student (American Civil Liberties Union, 2023), and within low-income communities, children of color make up the majority of students, so imagine the number of suspensions that happen
It is important to know that the majority of these students are African American and when comparing to white students African American students are four times more likely to be referred to special education services. In, The Gestalt of The School-To Prison Pipeline: The Duality of Overrepresentation of Minorities In Special Education and Racial Disparity In School Discipline on Minorities, author Torin Togut outlines a long term relationship African American children have had with the United States of America’s justice system. What led Togut to dive into this study is the story of now Dr. Billy Hawkins.
The most important of the vast privileges today’s generation of America has in my opinion are freedom and choice. Of course none of these would’ve been possible without blood, sweat, and tears from our soldiers. America has more than enough gifts to offer for everyone ranging from rich to poor and good to bad. Schools are great and have many advantages that other countries lack. Our veterans have given us everything we need and more so the vast majority of us can be successful.
The teen was not killed during the school hour but he was staying with his father as a result of the suspension (Hoffman, 2014). Many articles and literature address these issues; however, there is a gap in the literature that explains how minority girls are affected which in turn overlook solutions to the problem. Daly et al. (2016) indicate that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 provided incentives for schools to eliminate specific students so that the school’s standardized test score results will improve. According to Thompson (2016) unintended consequences rose out of federal incentives for students to do well on test scores since the federal bench marks needed to be met to receive funding.
Brown Did Not Help the Economic Problems of African Americans Justice Earl Warren fought tirelessly to have a unanimous Supreme Court decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education. The justices knew this would be a landmark case (Urofsky, Seminar). While Brown was a step in the right direction, not only did it not solve the problem of school segregation, but it did not solve the root of the Jim Crow laws. By ruling on segregation specifically in education and not addressing the economic issues that plagued African Americans, Brown did not have the positive effect on race relations in the south that it could have. Brown did not solve the problem of school segregation.
The Brown v. Board of Education was a groundbreaking case that made segregated schools unconstitutional, but unfortunately schools are still not equal in 2017. When it comes to school discipline African-Americans are given harsher consequences. “Racially biased school discipline contributes to what’s known as the ‘school-to-prison pipeline’ (Quinlan, Casey). After a student is suspended numerous times, the next disciplinary action is explosion, then after explosion, the next step is the juvenile system. Secondly, two other factors that contribute to the unequal education quality are white history lessons, and segregated schools.
The educational system in America contains numerous racial disparities that affects the very core of the children who is suppose to benefit from education. This disparity comes in many forms in primary schools, a teacher’s attitude being one of them (Epps, 1995). A teacher’s attitude in a classroom consisting of a racially diverse children is a large contributing factor to the academic success of their students, more specifically, the minority African American students. It is a given that all schools should employ qualified teacher who are passionate about their students and the quality of education they provide to these students. Unfortunately, that is not the case for many urban schools that house a large proportion of African American students
For example, in spite of the fact that black kids make up only 18 percent of preschoolers across the country, they represent about half of out-of-school suspensions, as per a 2014 U.S. Department of Education report. Other consequence is thinking of whites about black education. Williams, and David (1999) demonstrates national data which uncover that in 1942 only 32% of
However, with diversity comes inequalities that people of color face throughout their lives. A particular issue in the United States, specifically in education, is unequal opportunities and treatment in regard to race. Research shows that students from single-parent black families had a high chance of dropping out and participating in illicit behavior (Hallinan 54). While the issue of race is a complicated issue to breach for
During the 1900s a set of laws and rules were put into place that changed the way blacks would be treated for forever. The Jim Crow Laws was the beginning of the segregation of whites and black. It forced blacks to be separate from whites. These laws were justified by the mentality that the laws separated blacks from whites however it made them equal. However, this was not the case due to the Jim Crow Laws giving whites more benefits than blacks.
The literature review clearly has shown that there is a phenomenon called School to Prison, Schoolhouse to Jailhouse, or Public Education to Prison Pipeline. Therefore, Jeremy Thompson (2016) says, “Zero-tolerance policies in schools result in high suspension rates and expulsion rates among students in general, but disproportionately affect minority students, especially African-Americans because students who have been suspended or expelled are more likely than not to end up in the Criminal Justice