The "cumulative impact of racial discrimination accounts for the special, way that blacks have of looking at and evaluating" their experiences in public encounters (Feagin, 1991:115). For example, descriptions of black citizens ' mistreatment by the police are abundant in some African-American communities. Regardless of their accuracy, the dissemination of these narratives increases the likelihood that neighborhood residents will come to view local policing strategies as racially biased (Weitzer, 2002). Feagin 's (1991) examination of racial discrimination highlights the importance of understanding the impact of accumulated discriminatory experiences. One of the most reliable findings in research on attitudes toward police is that citizen distrust is more widespread among African-Americans than whites.
Throughout history, disputes and tensions between law enforcement officials and communities of minorities have endured hostility and violence between each other. Racial profiling has become a “hot topic” for researchers as well as for politicians and by now it is likely that most citizens are at least aware of the common accusations of racial bias pitted against law enforcement (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Communities of color are being discriminated against and racially profiled by white police officers for any suspicion of criminal activities. It has been widely assumed by policy makers and citizens alike that allegations of racial profiling are mostly associated with the policing practices of white officers and their treatment of racial and ethnic minorities (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Also, individuals of minority descent will certainly recognize that they are being racially profiled during a stop that is being conducted by a white police officer.
Through my research I continuously asked myself; why are there more people of color incarcerated than whites? Is it because they commit more crimes? Or are parts of the criminal justice system flawed and discriminatory? Nonetheless, if the there is some kind of discrimination, does this explain poverty in African American and Hispanic communities? I found that, today, people of color are more likely to be incarcerated and sentenced disproportionally than their white counterparts.
Kids with detained guardians will probably have behavioral and passionate issues and are six times more prone to be imprisoned sometime down the road. Since African-American men are likely to be imprisoned than other men, African American kids encounter an exceptional and unique weakness (Mass imprisonment and childhood behavioral problems, 2011). Accordingly, mass imprisonment makes an arrangement of abuse for some of the society 's most helpless
Crack and other drugs also set many impoverished communities back because of the catastrophic effects of addiction or imprisonment (Levitt). It also affected black communities far more than white communities, contributing greatly to the widened gap in racial
The intention of my research is to expose the racist tactics in the criminal justice system that have been camouflaged. I am prepared to explain how racism contributes to the vast number of incarcerated African Americans, and other minorities. The criminal justice system has created and perpetuated racial hierarchy in the United States, and has done so throughout history. I propose the question: Are minorities being targeted within the Criminal Justice System? African Americans are criminalized and targeted because of their skin color, and it is not fair.
Racial profiling, poverty and high crime rates are the major contributors to high incarceration rates for African Americans compared to their percent of the general population. Besides social and economic isolation, African Americans have been marked as inherently criminal with the war on drugs and crime targeting them even when the statics shows they are less likely to be in possession of cocaine for example (Walker, Spohn, DeLone, 2012). The high number of African Americans on death row is the result of institutional racism. Majority of the judges in the United States are white and more often than not are either implicitly or explicitly biased in their rulings (Walker, Spohn, DeLone, 2012). Institutionalized racism refers to an expression
The consequences faced by black people due to racism are racial hate crime and racial based crimes. Kahl (2013, September 1) writes that we used a racial hate crime in light of the fact that higher quantities of contemptuous unlawful acts target African Americans: In 2009, 48.5% of the reported single-bias hate criminal acts were racially based and 71.4% of those law infringements were represented as being against black (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009). The percentage of hate crimes are higher against African Americans. The hate criminal acts were racially based and were mostly against black. For example, departments of public safety on college campuses also play a role in creating awareness, given that in 2009, 11.4% of reported hate crimes occurred at schools or colleges (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009) and both victims and perpetrators are often young adults (Craig & Waldo, 1996; Downey & Stage, 1999).Other consequence faced by blacks is racial based crimes.Stotzer et al (2012) describes that overviews of college students additionally uncover high rates of hate unlawful acts, both reported and unreported, with around 16% of students responding that they 've been the casualties of preference, and 25% of racial and ethnic minority understudies especially report being the casualties of bias (Ehrlich, 1994).Schools and colleges are generally white ranges, the addition of racial/ethnic minorities could trigger resistance to their growing vicinity through race-based hate
Secondly, the massive gun related violence in the USA has caused many concerns about social stability and security. The recent gun violence in the US has also caused tense social relationship between African Americans and white people.O’Brien et al (2013) found that the increasing number of gun related violence in certain areas have caused fear towards black people such as African Americans. The racism driven type of gun violence is common in some areas. Also, gun violence is also argued to have connection with increasing unemployment rate in inner cities. Because people do not have regular source of income, they decide to take the risks to go to the streets with their guns.
The subculture of violence is one of the theories that people believe is the reason that African Americans are so violent and commit so many crimes. “The subculture of violence theory posited that high rates of violence in inner-city communities existed because residents carried pro-violence values and norms”(Crutchfield). The theory is that because so many blacks live in a community that violence and other crimes are approved by and that's the way of life for them, they don’t know any better and that's what they instinctively do. It can be said that if people lived in a better neighborhood or even one where they didn’t tolerate this kind of behavior than African Americans wouldn’t be in this situation. They also said that because children
Racial invariance positions and sociological viewpoints on race and race contrasts in conditions and should account for the racial composition or black effect on level violence rates. Examination led in 1990 gives blended or opposite confirmation to this position, demonstrating that greater concentrations of blacks are connected to increased violence after accounting for racial differences in socioeconomic conditions. Black violent crimes is highly relevant in today’s society. Most crimes are committed by African Americans due to many factors but where are these factors taking place and who else is taking place in these crimes other than the targeted ethnicity. According to racial placements and main sociological perspectives
Elijah Anderson, a Yale professor, developed the concept or theory entitled the “code of the street” which explains the reasoning for high rates of street violence among African-American juveniles in a Philadelphia community. The “code of the street” is the way of life for many living in poverty-stricken communities which attempt to regulate behaviors. Anderson observed that juveniles in inner-city neighborhoods who are exposed to racial discrimination, economic disadvantages and alienation from mainstream society may lead violent behavior. The strain, social learning, and labeling theories are all directly related to Anderson’s work. The strain theory implies that crime may occur because of the stress or frustration placed on people when
The issue of racial profiling has been called to national attention recently resulting in inefficient policing due to high tensions between law enforcement officials and minority races. The American justice system must take the initiative to end the improper treatment and wrongful deaths of people of