In this article, the Miller explores the connection of racial disparity between dark, Latinos and white in the American Criminal Justice structures. The article argues that the racial disparity occurs on the basis of wrongdoing, crime, and imprisonment on African American, Latinos as compared with whites. Additionally, it claims the relationship of race and crime rates that conclude that black, Latinos receive high severe punishment than whites. As indicated by the Miller, the crime rates for blacks are seven times higher than whites. It also measures the effect of the high crime rate on racial minorities that they face significant issue for kids, families, marriage, neighborhood inconvenience, and neediness. However, the reason for persistent
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We live in a society where ethnic minorities are target for every minimal action and/or crimes, which is a cause to be sentenced up to 50 years in jail. African Americans and Latinos are the ethnic minorities with highest policing crimes. In chapter two of Michelle Alexander’s book, The Lockdown, we are exposed to the different “crimes” that affects African American and Latino minorities. The criminal justice system is a topic discussed in this chapter that argues the inequality that people of color as well as other Americans are exposed to not knowing their rights. Incarceration rates, unreasonable suspicions, and pre-texts used by officers are things that play a huge role in encountering the criminal justice system, which affects the way
Bryan Stevenson negotiates the prejudice and intolerance within the criminal justice system, and the biases within based on economic and racial status. This book exposed myself to a deeper level of injustice inside our system than what I already had a conception of. Each story Bryan talks about hits on different subjects that opened my eyes to how our system truly treats minorities so coldly. Those of a different race, economic status, are treated far worse than we can imagine. Within the past few years racial injustices have began to gain more attention in the media, allowing awareness into the discrimination still present in our system.
Alexander’s book introduction addresses some of the injustices that minorities especially African Americans have to endure under the war on drugs. However, Alexander also points out that drug crimes are relatively low compared to other countries meaning that there is no correlation at all between rising efforts on law enforcement funding and declining crime rates. Alexander comes to the conclusion that the current criminal justice system is set up to keep social control over minorities. The New Jim Crow assignment has a total of twenty six questions.
Bringing attention to the unfair disparage-ridden system, it is known that racial minorities like African Americans or Latinos are condemned more than Caucasians hence the dispoportionate number of the innocent outweighing the number of those guilty of the crime. The correction of the oppressive imbalanced system leaves room for a new unbiased
Coker gives great evidence that supports racial injustice in the criminal justice system. She discusses on the Supreme Court’s rulings and accusations of racial preference in the system. This article is helpful because it supports my thesis on race playing a role on the system of criminal justice. Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (1997). Public perceptions of race and crime: The role of racial stereotypes.
In this article, the authors examine the research of how the criminal justice system forms racial profiling in the United States as incarceration increases. The authors use longitudinal data to find information of how one’s skin color can affect one’s punishments compared to someone who is white due to the stereotypes that revolve around their race. As they further investigate they found that “there is a stereotypical link between race and crime” (Saperstein et al., 2014) as arrest and the consequences associated with the crime are increased to people who are minorities. The article strongly suggests an extensive impact on increased policing and rise of incarceration on racialization and stereotyping with results of groups, police judgments
The racial and injustices different races have to deal with in America. Being black and hispanic in America can be unfair. Dealing with police brutality, mass incarceration, racial profiling are things that describe what some black and hispanics deal with on a day to day basis. Author Nicole Gonzalez Van Cleve goes into depth of how hispanics and people of color are treated in the court system of the United states. Gonzalez Van Cleve opens the doors of the courthouse and takes us for a journey.
Discrimination and racial disparities exist at every phase of the U.S. criminal justice system, especially when it comes to sentencing. The United States incarcerates more people than any other country in the world, as there are over 2 million people imprisoned today. The drawing is a visual representation of my annotated bibliography. In it, I stated that the criminal justice system is broken, as it discriminates against people of color. The left side of the illustration depicts the scene of the courtroom during the trial of a white defendant.
Alexander argues that the practice of racial injustice and segregation is due to the existence of mass incarceration. She goes into great detail in her writing, explaining why she believes mass incarceration is the issue and how history show us that America will always find a way to separate racial communities. This book would serve as an excellent reference to anyone studying racial injustice, mass incarceration, plea bargain coercion, racial history in America, and more. The beauty of this book is not only Alexander’s fact finding revelations, is the fact that she isn’t saying anything unheard of or anything that has not been realized by member of poor black communities, she simply found a way to articulate the issue in a way the demanded consideration from readers in and outside the communities being discussed. Alexander finds a way to expose the true nature of the criminal justice system using the people’s voice and research.
Michelle Alexander, similarly, points out the same truth that African American men are targeted substantially by the criminal justice system due to the long history leading to racial bias and mass incarceration within her text “The New Jim Crow”. Both Martin Luther King Jr.’s and Michelle Alexander’s text exhibit the brutality and social injustice that the African American community experiences, which ultimately expedites the mass incarceration of African American men, reflecting the current flawed prison system in the U.S. The American prison system is flawed in numerous ways as both King and Alexander points out. A significant flaw that was identified is the injustice of specifically targeting African American men for crimes due to the racial stereotypes formed as a result of racial formation. Racial formation is the accumulation of racial identities and categories that are formed, reconstructed, and abrogated throughout history.
Two factors that contribute to health disparities among ethnic groups is the lack of access to fresh food and the infrequency of health care coverage within ethnic groups. Within the poorer communities where the populations are those of ethnicity they may not have the same access to grocery stores as those non-ethnic groups residing outside of the lower income regions. By not having access to grocery stores they do not have access to fresh fruits and vegetables and are forced to purchase foods that are processed since they have a longer shelf life. Processed foods in most cases are not as healthy as fresh foods and there is a tendency to purchase foods that are considered junk food or items that are unhealthy. These unhealthy food choices
However, racial bias also plays a role in the juvenile justice system. When looking at the population of detention centers and training schools, black males are four times more at risk of being a part of this population than white males are (Leiber & Fix, 2019). Going back to the 1990s, 41% of juveniles in detention centers were black (Leiber & Fix, 2019). In 1995, 68% of the detention centers population was made up of minorities (Leiber & Fix, 2019). These juveniles who were minorities were also more likely to be sent to an adult court (Leiber & Fix, 2019).
Along with African-American/Blacks, the Hispanic population is underrepresented at both the state and federal levels while the Caucasian/White population are underrepresented (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone, 2018). This essay will discuss multiple different races and ethinicities to regard their population make up within the prison system. Although race and ethnicity relate to one another they are different. According to Walker et al. (2018), race is defined as the, “major biological divisions of mankind,” for
Much of the twentieth century, crime and punishment has provided some of the most powerful signs of the racial split in America (Rosich,2007). For example, African Americans accounted for 89 percent of the prison population executed for rape between the years of 1930 and 1972 (U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000). The question that has been raised is not who, what, when but is why? Could the answer possibly be that, though criminal activity has no face, no gender, race, or ethnic background that people are always looking for a scapegoat of some sort to make sure someone pays the dues of the crime that has been committed?