This new law caused an increase from an estimated 300,000 to 2 million prison inmates over the course of the last two decades. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) According to Rebecca C. Hatey and Jennifer L. Eberhdt of Stanford University, California holds only 7% of African American population but 45% of California’s prison inmates are African American under the three strikes law. (Racial Disparities in Incarceration Increase Acceptance of Punitive Policies 2014) Michelle Alexander writes that the mass incarceration of the 1990’s created a new “racial caste system” and extreme funding for the criminal system. (Michelle Alexander, 2010:58) The three strikes law targeted the communities affluent with minority groups. At the turn of the 21st century the majority that entered the prison system were African Americans and Latinos.
In 2010, the U.S. Sentencing Commission said that African Americans receive 10 percent longer sentences than whites for the same commited crime. Similar acts of marginalization and discrimination are scattered throughout John Steinbeck 's, Of Mice and Men. These events include disabilities among communities and old age affecting worth. That brings the reader to wonder; what happens to a society when many citizens feel marginalized?
There are a lot of things that influence African Americans lives, but jail incarceration and poverty seems to be at the root. I am mentioning poverty because unjust jail incarceration is linked adjacent to it. According to the State of Working America in a 2013 study, African Americans, poverty rates are the highest at 27%. According to the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, “African Americans now constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population.” According to the U.S. Sentencing Commission in a 2010 study, African Americans offenders receive sentences that are 10% longer than white offenders for the same crimes.
Unfortunately, there are racial disparities in the United States in the legal system. Prison sentences imposed on African American males in the federal system are nearly 20 percent longer than white males convicted of similar crimes. The 1994 Crime Bill signed by President Clinton established mandatory minimum sentences. African American and Latino offenders sentenced in state and federal courts face greater odds of incarceration than white offenders who are in similar situations and receive longer sentences than whites in some jurisdictions. Research has shown that race plays a significant role in determination on which homicide cases resulted in death sentences.
With this said, it is no question as to why: white Latino men are much more likely than White men, but only half as likely as Black men, to serve time in prison. Latino boys also face high levels of incarceration, particularly in states with large Latino populations and why California and Texas alone imprison the majority of incarcerated Latino youth in the United States. By putting a stop to the mis labeling of Latinos in our country; there wouldn’t be such a heavy imbalance among different races and their incarnation rates. Our society and criminal justice system would function better as
Furthermore, black children are more than seven times more likely to spend more than half of their childhood years in poverty. Secondly, the issues around 52% African American men are unemployed in New Orleans. The lack of job skilled and education opportunities is two issues contributed to the high Black male unemployment rate. In addition, the rehabilitation process for convicted felons is dreadfully weak. Finding a job with a felony status is extremely difficult.
Racism is one of the major issues in the world today, it plays a big role in the United States Justice System. There has been many unjustified cases due to an individual’s race. Defendants convicted of killing whites were more than four times more likely to receive the death penalty than those convicted of murdering blacks. (Constitutional Rights Foundation) Study proved that juror and judges discriminated against African-American defendants. Black defendants were 1.1 times more likely to receive the death penalty than the white defendants.
Alarmingly, African American men make up 6% of the general population, but they represent 50% of the prison community (Perry & Bright, 2012). Despite the atrocious effects of incarceration, African American boys feel that imprisonment is a way of life given the prevalence in their environments (Perry & Bright, 2012). The Bureau of Statistics (2011) reported that by the end of 2010, the African American prisoner population consisted of 3,074 prisoners per 100,000 while the Caucasian prisoner population consisted of 459 prisoners per 100,000; thereby making African American males seven times more distinguishable in the U.S. correctional system. Evidence shows that many African American children have incarcerated fathers but are hesitant about discussing its effects on their lives (Geller, 2009). The African American community cycle of incarceration is at an incline, therefore parental incarceration is highly suggested in screening assessments for therapy (Perry & Bright,
The death penalty has sparked the conversation since the eighteenth century and has taken hundreds of lives since, but is it cheaper to have someone sent to death row? The death penalty can be big deal, you are taking the life of someone who is a criminal, or a murderer, but it can also be an innocent person 's life. What crimes deserve the death penalty? Most of the time the death penalty is used only on the worst of crimes. The other thing is that each death row prisoner to maintain the prisoner cost taxpayers 90,000 more per year, but without the death penalty cost 740,000, while to use the death penalty cost 1.26 million.
For some, freedom is not given. For some, freedom is how things are in which a common situation in everyday life. Realize it or not, human trafficking is still happening today. For every 30 seconds, another person becomes a victim of the trafficking industry. Today, according to ILO research, not only there are more than 21 million people being trafficked worldwide but also an illegal annual profits that may exceeds USD $150 billion, in such a way making trafficking industry as the second largest black market industry in the world.
Racial equalities are when people of tied to poverty and tied to race, possibly even more than in other Eastern North Carolina rural communities where blacks and Latinos typically experience higher rates of poverty than their white counterparts.Overall, black and Latino residents of North Carolina are much more likely to live in poverty than white North Carolinians. In the state, 27.7 percent of African-Americans live in poverty, while 34 percent of Latinos do, according to an analysis by the N.C. Budget and Tax Center. Less than 12 percent of the state’s white population lives in poverty. Those rates go up even higher for children
Communities of color were targeted for crimes and given larger prison sentences than their white counterparts. In the Rockefeller Drug Reform of 2009, the racial disparities significantly decreased in the early periods following the reform (Parsons, Wei, Henrichson, Drucker, & Trone, 2015). Black and Hispanic individuals, in 2008 were three-times more likely than whites to receive a prison sentence; by 2010, black and Hispanic individuals were only twice as likely to be charged than whites. Although this is still an issue that needs to be addressed, it is a significant accomplishment compared to previous years. There is still said to be harmful biases in the criminal justice system (Parsons, Wei, Henrichson, Drucker, & Trone,
Income inequality is an ongoing issue in the world and race plays a major factor with this discrimination. The racial wage gap between black and white women has grown substantially since the 1980s (Pettit and Ewert 2009). Racial and ethnic wage gaps are significantly larger for men than for women. Based on the 1981 CPS date, black-white earnings are 0.67 for men vs. 0.97 for women, while Hispanic-white earnings are 0.72 for men and 0.90 for women (Bayard, Hellerstein, Neumark, and Troske 1999). I am going to explain two factors that contribute to income inequality, race and ethnicity, and gender.
School causes a lot of stress and requires tons of work, but in the end, it is all worth it. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate for those with less than a high school diploma is 8% compared to the nations 4.3% unemployment rate. Given that 65% of jobs in the U.S require a at least a college degree, not having a high school diploma would make it difficult to find good jobs. According to pbs.org, Black and Latino students are twice as likely to not graduate from high school as white student’s. Clearly, race